"We ought to remind about them, at least before God and history."
POPE JOHN PAUL II
TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1:
Who were the "Doomed Soldiers" of the Polish Armed Underground, what motivated them to continue fighting for independent and democratic Poland after the end of World War II, what legacy did they leave behind, and much more ...
How many Doomed Soldiers died; Who Occupied Poland; What are the AK, WiN, NSZ organizations? ; What is the Urzad Bezpieczenstwa ?; What is the NKVD ?; What is SMERSH ?; What happened to the Nazi concentration camps after World War II ?... and other answers to the most commonly asked questions ...
Letters from the Underground
"You could never imagine what a mass of men [K.B.W. Korpus Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego - Communist Internal Security Corps] they threw at us, but I firmly believe that this is the right fight, and that God is with us. He keeps on leading us out of situations that should be impossible to survive. It is impossible to believe how many soldiers and equipment they threw against us." NEW!
Attack On Hrubieszów, May 26/27, 1946The joint WiN and UPA military operation in Hrubieszów became the source of major embarrassment to the Communist “People’s government”, in particular, because at the time, it was perceived to be only a prelude to the main assault, that was yet to come.
An Assault on Włodawa, October 22, 1946 - During 1944 -1947, there were 88 major assaults on Communist detention centers and prisons. During more than 100 such operations, the prisoners were not only freed from Communist militia stations, jails, transport convoys and hospitals, but more often-than-not, were saved from certain death. While carrying out these operations, and risking their own lives, the partisans brought freedom to their brothers-in-arms, and their countrymen in general; all in all, around 5,000 individuals were freed.
Armia Krajowa in NKVD/NKGB Documents:
July 6, 1944 NKVD/NKGB Report
July 17, 1944 NKVD/NKGB Report
July 18, 1944 NKVD/NKGB Report
July 20, 1944 NKVD/NKGB Report
Not Only Katyn (Pol. "Nie tylko katyń"):Even though many years have passed since that fateful summer in 1945, the families of the missing haven’t lost hope in finding their loved ones. “I hope that my husband is still alive. He surely is somewhere in Russia. Now, he will come back, because many things have changed over there [in Russia]. We will still see each other in this world” - how strange these words sound coming from the mouth of an old, ailing woman. Others - and they are the majority - only want to know the truth. They want to know where the graves of their relatives are. Are they somewhere far away in the East, in the “inhuman land”, or maybe here, in some unknown corner of the woods ? In July 1945, the units of the NKVD [Rus. Народный комиссариат внутренних дел Narodnyy komissariat vnutrennikh del, NKVD, (НКВД), the Soviet secret police] carried out mass arrests and deportations of people suspected of being members of the Polish Home Army [abr. AK – Armia Krajowa] in the Augustów forest area. During the roundup, as it is called by the locals, thousands were arrested. From among those, hundreds had disappeared without a trace. - “We do not know where to pray for them. Where do we go to light a candle for a father, a husband, or a brother?”- ask the inhabitants of Giby, Płaska, Balinka, Mikaszówka and dozens of other villages in Suwalszczyzna who during the beginning of the first post-World-War-II summer, were surrounded by a cordon of armed Soviet soldiers.
Pt. 1: Before They Came
Pt. 2: The Roundup Begins
Pt. 3: Those Who Survived
Pt. 4: Coincidence or Betrayal
Pt. 5: We Regret to Inform You
Pt. 6: The Commotion Near Giby
Pt. 7: We Will Not Be Silenced
Pt. 8: Wrong Graves NEW!
Pt. 9: Other Trails NEW!
Pt. 10: The Missing
Pt. 11: Notes & Bibliography
Partisan Unit "Błyskawica"- No units under the command of Major Józef Kuraś, nom de guerre "Ogień" were incorporated into any large post-war underground conspiratorial organization and he himself remained an independent commander. Despite numerous attempts from the Rzeszow Regional National Military Union [acr. NZW] (under the command of Captain Piotr Wozniak nom de guerre "Wir") and the Region VII of the National Armed Forces [acr. NSZ - Norodowe Sily Zbrojne] (under the command of Captain Henryk Flame, nom de guerre "Bartek"), and various representatives of the political headquarters of NSZ in the West, Ogień" wouldn't allow his soldiers to be incorporated into any national underground conspiratorial formation.
Maj. Hieronim Dekutowski "Zapora" (1918 - 1949) In the Net of Communist Intelligence Services- The March 7th marked yet another anniversary of the murder of Major Hieronim Dekutowski “Zapora” and his soldiers at the Mokotów prison in Warsaw. A fierce dispute between historians as to who really betrayed “Zapora” and his men, continues to this day. One thing is certain, however - “Zapora’s” only chance of survival was to escape through Polish-Czech boarder into the American Zone in Germany. But, Dekutowski never made it through having been betrayed ...
Narodowe Zjednoczenie Wojskowe (NZW) - Region XXIII- Formed in the summer of 1946, the XXIII Region of Narodowe Zjednoczenie Wojskowe (NZW) incorporated former Directorate for Diversion soldiers of the Home Army Inspectorate for the cities of Plock and Sierpy with the 11th Operations Group of the National Armed Forces (NSZ - Narodowe Siły Zbrojne). Initially, its network would span the borders of Warsaw and Bydgoszcz voivodeships (districts of Sierpy, Mława, Lipno and Rypin) followed by the districts of Wroclaw, Plock, Plonskie and, partly, districts of Dzialdowo and Ciechanów.
The Death of Captain "Uskok" - Captain Zdzisław Broński, nom de guerre "Uskok" was one of the most active and least compromising commandants of the anti-communist partisan units in the province of Lublin. During 1944-47 his military unit carried out several famous missions against the Communist Regime in the districts of Lubartów and Lublin. Part 1, Part 2, Part 3
Armia Krajowa (Home Army) 5th and 6th Wilno Brigades: 1944-1952- The Home Army 5th Wilno Brigade [also known as the “Brigade of Death”] commanded by Maj. Zygmunt Szendzielarz nom de guerre “Lupaszka” was one of the most eminent Home Army partisan units active in the Home Army Vilnius Region. During the German occupation, it operated in particularly difficult conditions and had to fight Germans, as well as Soviet partisans, who were fighting the Home Army. The Brigade achieved considerable combat successes fighting the two enemies. Part 2
Hieronim Dekutowski, a commando (Pol. Cichociemny) during the Nazi occupation of Poland in World War II, defended the people of the Zamość region from repressions. As a commander of the Lublin-Puławy Inspectorate of the Kedyw AK [the Home Army’s Directorate for Diversion], he carried out 83 military operations. After the war, he was one of the most famous heroes of anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, the best known and the most wanted by the NKVD [the Soviet secret police - (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy komissariat vnutrennikh del, НКВД] and the UB (Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Public Security Office]
Narodowe Siły Zbrojne: An Outline - although the Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (NSZ) (Eng. National Armed Forces) is one of the best-known paramilitary organizations of the WWII and post-war Polish Underground State, the general knowledge on this subject is exceptionally modest. Established in September 1942 as a merger of various organizations with their roots in their respective national political movements, the National Armed Forces (NSZ) never comprised a uniform structure. In March 1944, the National Armed Forces merged with the Home Army (AK) but interestingly, that merger only in actuality, encompassed part of the National Armed Forces’ divisions. Aside of the NSZ-AK (National Armed Forces – Home Army) there also existed a separate organization, using the same name – NSZ (National Armed Forces). However, as its political background was primarily coming from the pre-war National-Radical Camp, in order to distinguish it from NSZ-AK, that organization was called NSZ-ONR (National Armed Forces – National-Radical Camp). Therefore, after WWII and throughout the Communist occupation period, there coexisted 2 separate paramilitary organizations under the same name.
"The Home Army in the Vilnius Region after July 1944"(Pol. "Armia Krajowa na Wileńszczyźnie po lipcu 1944") - The Vilnius (Wilno) Region was perhaps the only Polish region where the occupying forces changed five times. First, there was the Soviet occupation in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact [23 August 1939]. Then, afterwards the USSR handed over a significant part of the former Vilnius Voivodeship to the Republic of Lithuania in October 1939, commencing the Lithuanian occupation period. After the USSR’s invasion of the Baltic States in mid-1940 the Soviets returned. On 22/23 June 1941, the Germans invaded the Vilnius Region. Three years later, at the beginning of July 1944, the Soviets resumed their occupation for a third time, which was also referred to as the “third Soviets”, and, as recognized by an international agreement, this was going to be final. However, not many Poles believed it was going to be the final situation. It was not until the outcome of the Yalta Conference were revealed, that the Poles’ beliefs of recovering the region were shattered. Part 2 ...
The Anti-Communist Resistance in the South-Eastern Borderlands - At the end of 1943 and the beginning of 1944, according to reports there were 30,000 soldiers of the Home Army, or Armia Krajowa, in the Southeastern Region III, including the eastern part of Lwow voivodeship, as well as Stanislawow and the Tarnopol voivodeships: 15,000 in Lwow Province, over 10,000 in the Tarnopol Province and 4,000 in Stanislawow Province. Between March and July 1944, poor weaponry of the Region was strengthened thanks to provisions from the Headquarters of the Home Army and the collection of 24 airdrops, which enabled the construction of 18-20 partisan companies just in the Lwow Province alone. As part of the alliance, the Home Army was joined by the units of NOW (Pol. Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa - National Military Organization), the KN (Pol. Konfederacja Narodu - Confederation of the Nation), a part of the NSZ (Pol. Narodowe Sily Zbrojne - National Armed Forces), the BCh (Pol. Bataliony Chlopskie - Peasants' Battalions) and the SOB (Pol. Socjalistyczna Organizacja Bojowa - Socialist Combat Organisation). Part 2 ...
Home Army in the Nowogródek (Kresy Wschodnie - Eastern Borderlands) area after July 1944 - Armia Krajowa na Nowogródczyźnie po lipcu 1944 - (Pol. "Armia Krajowa na Nowogrodczyznie po lipcu 1944") - The failure of the Operation ‚’Ostra Brama’, followed by the disarmament of the Armia Krajowa (Eng., Home Army, abbr. AK) units near Wilno, in July 1944, dealt a severe blow to the Nowogrodek District of the AK. During this period, nearly 6,000 soldiers from the Home Army District "Now" (code name of the Nowogrodek AK District) found their way into the area around Wilno, to take part in its liberation from the Nazis. The great majority of men who were disarmed were transported to Kaluga (Russian: Калу́га). After refusing to give their military oath to the Soviets, were subsequently transported to punishment camps in the forests near Moscow.
Konspiracyjne Wojsko Polskie - (Eng., Polish Underground Army - abbr. KWP) was one of the most distinguished anti-Communist resistance organizations established after the formal disbandment of the Armia Krajowa (Eng. Home Army) on January 19, 1945. Its units were active in the Central and Western Poland, particularly in the kieleckie, łódzkie, śląskie, poznańskie voivodeships. Its creator, leader, and chief ideologist, was Captain Stanislaw Sojczynski, nom de guerre "Warszyc".
The Protection Unit of KG DSZ and I ZG Association WiN - In April 1945, Captain Jan Kosowicz, noms de guerre‚ “Ciborski”, “Janek”, “Capt. Jan Chmielewski", who directed the “long-range-intelligence” cell of the AK-DSZ (code-name "WW-72", later “Pralnia II” - Eng. “Laundromat II”) established the "The Protection Unit of the General Staff of the Delegation of the Polish Armed Forces at Home and the 1st Executive Office of the Association WiN" (Pol. Oddział Osłony KG DSZ na Kraj i I ZG Zrzeszenia WiN)
Freedom And Independence - Zrzeszenie Wolność i Niezawisłość WiN - by Dr. Janusz Kurtyka, Ph. D. - "A Historical Brief." The idea of establishing WiN appeared already in the Col. Rzepecki’s appeal to the DSZ soldiers in the forest on July 24, 1945. It was further refined during several meetings in Warsaw and Krakow between the 2nd, 6th, 12th and 15th of August 1945. It is during this period that the first draft of the ‘WiN’ political and ideological manifesto, authored by the Boleslaw Srocki, further refined by Col. Jan Rzepecki, was formulated. After the disbandment of the DSZ, and further consultations with underground cells, on September 2, 1945, in Warsaw, the Association "Wolnosc i Niezawislosc" [‘Freedom and Indepenence’, was formally established. The leadership of WiN consisted of Colonels Jan Rzepecki "Ożóg", "Ślusarczyk" (its Chairman), Tadeusz Jachimek "Ninka" (Secretary General), Antoni Sanojca "Skaleń" and Franciszek Niepokólczycki "Halny (a subsequent Chariman of the Area "South"), Jan Szczurek-Cergowski, , "Sławbor", "Mestwin" (Chairman of the Area "West"), Jozef Rybicki, "Maciej" (Chairman of the Area "Center"), Janusz Bokszczanin, , "Sęk" (a Deputy-Chairman, who shortly thereafter was sent to the West as an emissary) ...
Part 1 - Introduction
Part 2 - Informing International Public Opinion About Poland's Fate
Part 3 - Notable Members & Events
Part 4 - The Fight for Their Own Lives
VE Day in Grajewo - May 9 day is universally recognized as the day of the victory over Nazism and the end of the World War II. Yet, paradoxically, it was on this very day that the partisans from the Democratic Resistance units from Grajewo and Lomza, won their largest battle with the emerging forces of the Communist regime in Poland. On May 8 and 9th, 1945, two hundred-men from Jan Tabortowski, nom de guerre ‚’Bruzda’ unit took over the city of Grajewo and freed political prisoners held in Communist jails ...
The Destruction of the National Military Union Detachment of Adam Kusz, nom de guerre “Garbaty" (Hunchback) - August 19, 1950- At the beginning of 1950 there were hardly any partisan units of the Polish Independence underground still defying Soviet imposed Communist rule. Due to an amnesty announced by the Communist authorities in 1947, most conspirators came out of hiding. Only small groups of partisans who did not trust the authorities, or who took advantage of the amnesty but still found themselves to be the target of repressions, remained in the field
The last battle of the 5th Wilno (Vilnius) Brigade. Conversation with Janina Wasiłojć-Smoleńska, nom de guerre "Jachna" - When I met Janina Wosilojc for the first time in May 2007, I saw a petite, good-natured woman who was full of life. Had it undoubtedly not been for my incomplete and superficial knowledge of her past, that is the past of somebody who since 1942 was involved in the resistance, one would have never guessed that she had lived through being disarmed, and witnessed, and survived an execution of 80 soldiers under the command of Antoni Burzynski, nom de guerre "Kmicic" from the first larger partisan unit in the Wilno area by the Soviet partisans ...
The Battle of Miodusy Pokrzywne, together with the Battle of Las Stocki (fought by the military group commanded by Major Marian Bernaciak nom de guerre ‚’Orlik’ and the Battle of Kuryłówka (fought by the joint forces of the Polish National Underground commanded by Major Franciszek Przysiężnia (nom(s) de guerre ‚’Marek’ ‚’Ojciec Jan’), was one of the three major battles fought by the anti-Communist resistance forces in post-war Poland. The battle was fought on August 18, 1945 by the 1st Squadron of the 5th Vilnius Brigade commanded by Lieutenant Zygmunt Błażejewicz (nom de guerre ‚’Zygmunt’) and the unit commanded by Second Lieutenant Władysław Łukasiuk (nom de guerre 'Młot') against the units of the NKVD (Rus. Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del; Eng. The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs), the UB (Pol. Urzad Bezpieczenstwa; Eng. Office of Security) and the LWP (Pol. Ludowe Wojsko Polskie; Eng. Polish Peoples’ Army), which were suppressing the area of Podlasie, East of Poland.
Communist Torture Methods - The Craft of Breaking A Man - An abridged list and description of 49 torture methods used by the Polish Secret Police - the MBP (Polish - Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego, the UBP (Polish - Urzad Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego), the UB (Polish - Urzad Bezpieczenstwa), the SB (Polish - Służba Bezpieczeństwa , commonly known as Bezpieka) against the Polish Underground Soldiers.
I, a Home Army Soldier - (Pol. "Ja zolnierz Armii Krajowej") Stanislaw Marek Paczos, a Home Army Soldier didn’t fight Nazi occupiers by holding weapons in his hands. He didn’t fire a single shot, nor did he kill any enemies. But, he fought the Nazis effectively and successfully. Unfortunately, we cannot venture an easy measure of that, for Stanislaw Marek Paczos was a soldier on an invisible battlefield.
Urząd Bezpieczeństwa & Służba Bezpieczeństwa - Faces of the Polish Secret Police - For 45-years, the work in the Urząd Bezpieczeństwa [UB] and Służba Bezpieczeństwa [SB], was the most shameful profession in the entire apparatus of the Communist regime in Poland. This work was undertaken not only by those who were weak enough to succumb to the temptation of inflicting violence with impunity, but also by those insufficiently equipped to reject it, and those who without any scruples could partake in the murderous enterprise of crime. They were surrounded with preponderant fear, and also with a prevailing contempt - even from within the ranks of their protectors, and willing collaborators. For there aren't any more insulting words in the Polish language than those [used to refer to them] like 'ubek', 'bezpieka', or 'esbek'"
Who was Jozef Kuras "Ogień"?("Ogien" translation "Fire") - a code name used by the legendary Polish Armed Underground commander, Major Jozef Kuras.
Where did the Polish Secret Police, the "Bezpieka", bury the body of Major Jozef Kuras - "Ogien"? An Investigative Report.
The Execution of "Inka" and "Zagończyk" Related by Father Marian Prusak (pol. Egzekucja "Inki" i "Zagonczyka") Murders of Polish Underground Soldiers by Polish Security Police Apparatus.
The Augustow Roundup In July, 1945 (Pol. "Obława Augustowska w lipcu 1945.") During the course of the roundup, nearly 2,000 Polish nationals were detained by the Soviet NKVD, and Smersh units - 600 of those detained disappeared, never to be heard from again. The List of the Missing ...
The Little Katyn - The Uroczysko Baran Murders(Pol. "Kąkolewnica - podlaski Katyń") The prison facilities were designated to be utility buildings, attics, basements, and holes dug in the ground. It has been established that from September 1944 to November 1945, Kakolewica housed between 2,500 and 3,000 prisoners. It is estimated, that between 1,300 to 1800 underground soldiers were executed there.
A Volunteer For Auschwitz - Cavalry Captain Witold Pilecki was murdered by the Communists in 1948. Pilecki volunteered to be captured by the Nazis, in order to be sent to the infamous concentration camp in Auschwitz . His mission, was to report to the Polish Government in Exile and to the Western Allies, about the atrocities committed by the Nazis at the camp.
Major Maciej Kalenkiewicz, "Kotwicz", And the Battle at Surkonty - August 21, 1944 Nicknamed by the NKVD, the ’Handless major’ ("besrukhii major"), Maciej Kalenkiewicz was one of the most distinguished officers in the ranks of the Polish Home Army. Kalenkiewicz was also, one of the first victims of organized mass terror, conducted by the Soviets against the Polish democratic underground, and Polish population at large.
Major Maciej Kalenkiewicz, "Kotwicz", And the Battle For Surkonty - Epilogue [...] We arrived here from Poland, a land of 475 cemeteries of Russian soldiers. We buried them all with dignity and with compasion. We did that because death eases hurt; and because our faith dictates it. This cemetery will remain in the care of men and women who were always fateful to Poland, and let us hope, in the care of the hosts of this land. I ask you, our hosts, be humane to those whom we entrust into your care. May they rest in peace ...
The Raid of the “Tiger” Patrol (pol. “Rajd patrolu tygrysa") – A forgotten episode from the combat history of the 6th Wilno Brigade in the former East-Prussia (December 1946 - January 1947)
An Interview with Lt. Henryk Lewczuk, codenamed "Młot" (Eng. "Hammer"), commanding officer of the WiN Partisan unit of the Chelm WiN Inspectorate 'Why was WiN created? ‘The [political] system that was imposed upon us, was in contrary with our national identity. [...] We were dismayed by the methods used to implement it - the terror, the murders, the repression, that were used to enslave us [...], and was in contradiction with our oath[:] ‘Before God Almighty, and the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Crowned Princes of Poland, I lay my hand upon this Holy Cross, and swear to be faithful and to defend’
Operation "Avalanche", The UB Murder Without A Precedence (pol. "Operacja Lawina") Annihilation of the NSZ Armed Underground Units Under Command of Henryk Flame, "Bartek". In order to capture and murder members of the largest concentration of anti-Communist underground units operating in the Slask Opolski and Podbeskidzie regions, in 1946, the UB (Pol. Urzad Bezpieczenstwa - Polish Internal Security Police) employed an ingenious "operational play" (Pol. "gra operacyjna"), code-named "Operation Avalanche" (Pol. "Operacja Lawina"). It relied not only on the introduction of its own agents (Pol. "agentura" - Polish secret police spy-speak for "network of agents") into the ranks of the leadership, and command structure of the democratic underground, but also on creating new, and completely fictitious organizations under its complete control.
Liquidation of the “Wiarusy” Partisan Unit by the Polish Secret Police (Bezpieka) On June 27, 1949, commanding officer of the ‘Wiarusy’ unit, Stanislaw Ludzia, nom de guerre(s) ‘Dzielny’ and ‘Harnas’, awaited for the arrival of Lt. ‘Henryk’, a representative from the District Headquarters of ROAK (Pol. Ruch Oporu Armii Krajowej - ‘Resistance of the Home Army’) in Krakow. For several years, the partisans successfully managed to evade the Urzad Bezpieczenstwa forces, and survived in the forests, but with each passing day, their situation was becoming more, and more desperate ...
"The Forest Was My Only Safety" - An Interview with Mr. Andrzej Kiszka, A Home Army, NSZ, and WiN Soldier Who Evaded Polish Secret Police Until 1961 During the Nazi occupation Andrzej risked his own life, and the lives of his entire family, by hiding Jews. After the death of his last commanding officer in 1950, for 11 years, Andrzej Kiszka hid from the Polish Secret Police apparatus.
Counterintelligence Operations of the Home Army (AK - Armia Krajowa ), And WiN (Wolnosc i Niezawislosc - Freedom And Independence) Against Secret Police Apparatus In Poland During 1945-1947 - This study examines counterintelligence activities of the Home Army and WiN at the rural (Pol. gmina), county, Voivodeship, and the central command levels of the Communist regime, that is the MBP (Pol. Ministerstwo Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego - Ministry of Public Security), and the KG MO (Pol. Komenda Glowna Milicji Obywatelskiej - Central Command of the Peoples’ Militia).
Jozef J. Niedzwiecki, "Szary","Lawina" 1919-1989 - An Anatomy of Betrayal, The Stalin's Secret OrderOn December 1st, 1943, near Niestorowicze, the leadership of the AK met with the Soviet Partisans at the request of Soviet General "Dubov". Upon arrival, the Poles were surrounded and disarmed. The officers were arrested and taken away. Some were flown to Moscow for trial, the others were never seen alive again. The Soviets then launched surprise attacks on the nearby Polish camps. When some of the Poles resisted, they were shot. Some were first beaten and tortured, their bodies found with ears and fingers cut off [...] A few days later Jozef Niedzwiecki's squadron captured members of the "Stalin brigade" after surrounding them. On one Russian officer, Niedzwiecki discovered a copy of the "secret order" detailing the planned betrayal. They now had proof of Stalin's intentions for the Polish Home Army.
National Armed Forces - A Historical Brief It is difficult to consider the tragedy of heroism and betrayal without telegraphing a strong point of view on the subject. And so we come to NZS (Narodowe Sily Zbrojne; Eng. National Armed Forces), which tenaciously fought both the Nazi and Communist Soviet forces during World War II in Poland. Both adversaries were more that eager to co-opt such people as they could find to support them, and the Soviets found many to support the puppet regime they installed after the war. These people, many part of the nascent UB (Urzad Bezpieczenstwa; Eng. Public Security; Polish Communist: secret police), had no qualms about assassination and torture, much less deception, slander and libel in suppressing genuine patriots ...
Part 1 - Introduction
Part 2 - Allies & Enemies of Poland
Part 3 - Who Occupied Poland?
Part 4 - Lies, Lies by Omission, And Obfuscations - The history likes to play jokes …
Part 5 - Living and surviving as a Polish partisan under Nazi and Soviet Occupation
Memoirs of "Scotsman" - Imagine a group of young boys between the ages of 16 and 23-years old who suddenly leave their family nests and find themselves in a diametrically different environment an hour later [...] Notably, the family of [National Armed Forces'] Captain ‘Bronisz’ hid Jews throughout the entire Nazi occupation, and saved many of them. The same ‘anti-Semitic’ deeds have to also be attributed to the family of the individual writing this account, and to the families of our friends who lived in villages. For example, on his property in Stanislawow-Drupa, the grand-uncle of Captain Okninski, ‘Zych’ hid a Jew, Dr. Turski and his entire family, throughout the entire period of [Nazi] occupation...
The Last Soldier of Sovereign Poland - Sergeant Jozef Franczak, nom de guerre “Lalek” (1918-1963)- It was an unforgettable year, this 1963: the president John F. Kennedy dies in Dallas, Valentina Tereshkova waves her hand to humanity from space to humiliate the ‘imperialists’, the Beatles record their ‘She Loves You’ single, and in Poland..? The ‘little stabilization’ is in a full swing, Roman Zambrowski is thrown out from the Central Committee of the Communist Party to signal that the ‘period of mistakes and [political] perversion’ is behind us. Oh, there is one more thing: Surrounded by the Communist security forces, dies the last Polish partisan, the 45-year old Jozef Fronczak, nom de guerre ‘Lalek’, who hid from the Communists regime for exactly 24 years ... Part 1, Part 2, Part 3
"Born In Prison" - The Communists inculcated a belief in her that her parents were criminals. - ‘I considered them criminals until the end of the 1980’s’. - recalls Magdalena Zarzycka-Redwan today, born in 1949 in an infamous Communist prison at the Lublin Castle. ‘Only after the collapse of Communism I started looking for people who remembered my parents and began to uncover the history of my family’ - she adds [...] - ‘It is horrible, but I was glad that I would go back to the orphanage. I did not feel any bond with my father’ - recalls Magdalena. - ‘Only in the National Children’s Home in Lublin did I realize that it was even worse than the orphanage run by the nuns. The supervisor would make other children bully me. They called me names, I had a nickname ‘partisan’. I was so ashamed of my parents then. I agreed to recite during school ceremonies: My parents were criminals. But I am young and I won’t follow in their footsteps’ - she adds.