Retired Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Senior Scientific Intelligence Officer S. Eugene (Gene) Poteat Analyses the April 10, 2010 Crash of Polish Air Force One TU-154M Near Smolensk, Russia: "Russian Image Management - The KGB’s latest intelligence coup, and NATO’s latest intelligence disaster".
Books About Polish History And World Politics - Our Book Recommendations
The Doomed Soldiers Book Recommendations: Great Books About History And World Politics.
It must be recalled that the Polish Government In Exile, marshaled the third or fourth largest military force of the Allies during World War II, providing over 250,000 soldiers to the allied cause in the West - initially behind France and Britain, and then behind the Soviet Union, United States and Britain. These fought in Africa, Italy and France as well as in Poland, itself.
"Men will not receive the truth from their enemies and it is very seldom offered to them by their friends; on this very account I have frankly uttered it."
Alexis de Toqueville,
DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA
"Polish History" Book Recommendations:
"Endeavor: One Polish Family's Journey from Siberia to Freedom"by Hilary Shew
From the Publisher: Beginning on February 10, 1940, almost two million citizens of Eastern Poland were forcibly removed from their homes by Joseph Stalin's NKVD and deported to Siberian gulags, where they suffered unspeakable hardship, deprivation, and extermination through work. Accused of being "anti-Soviet elements," these victims of an ethnic cleansing campaign endured a brutal existence in subarctic temperatures before they were given "amnesty" on July 30, 1941. Learn about survival, sacrifice, and the resilience of the human spirit in this gripping historical narrative. Join eleven-year-old Thecla Raczynski and her family as they leave their labor camp and travel almost twenty thousand miles on their journey to freedom.
"Null and Void - Poland: Case Study on Comparative Imperialism"by M. B. Szonert
From the Publisher: "Null and Void: Poland: Case Study on Comparative Imperialism" traces the history of Poland from the 1930s to the 1950s, dealing with the Nazi era and focusing especially on the Stalinist period. The contemporary relevance of the issues Poland faced is relayed through the vivid true story of a Polish freedom fighter, Halina. Null and Void intertwines non-fiction narrative and historical analysis. Halina's story illustrates and ties together the analysis. Flashes forward to Halina's life today integrate the history of WWII Poland with present-day America, shedding important light on the relevance of Halina's experience to our lives today.
"God's Playground - A History of Poland"vol. 1 - The Origins to 1795 by Norman Davies
From the Publisher: "The most comprehensive survey of Polish history available in English, God's Playground demonstrates Poland's importance in European history from medieval times to the present. Abandoning the traditional nationalist approach to Polish history, Norman Davies instead stresses the country's rich multinational heritage and places the development of the Jewish German, Ukrainian, and Lithuanian communities firmly within the Polish context. Davies emphasizes the cultural history of Poland through a presentation of extensive poetical, literary, and documentary texts in English translation. In each volume, chronological chapters of political narrative are interspersed with essays on religious, social, economic, constitutional, philosophical, and diplomatic themes. This new edition has been revised and fully updated with two new chapters to bring the story to the end of the twentieth century." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"God's Playground - A History of Poland"vol. 2 - 1795 to the Present by Norman Davies
"From the Publisher: The most comprehensive survey of Polish history available in English, God's Playground demonstrates Poland's importance in European history from medieval times to the present. Abandoning the traditional nationalist approach to Polish history, Norman Davies instead stresses the country's rich multinational heritage and places the development of the Jewish German, Ukrainian, and Lithuanian communities firmly within the Polish context. Davies emphasizes the cultural history of Poland through a presentation of extensive poetical, literary, and documentary texts in English translation. In each volume, chronological chapters of political narrative are interspersed with essays on religious, social, economic, constitutional, philosophical, and diplomatic themes. This new edition has been revised and fully updated with two new chapters to bring the story to the end of the twentieth century". Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"No Greater Ally: The Untold Story of Poland's Forces in World War II"by Kenneth K. Koskodan
From the Publisher: "There is a chapter of World War II history that remains largely untold, the story of the fourth largest allied military of the war, the only nation to have fought in the battles of Leningrad, Arnhem, Tobruk and Normandy. The story of millions of young men and women who gave everything for freedom and in the final victory lost all. In a cruel twist of history the monumental struggles of an entire nation have been forgotten, and even intentionally obscured. This book redresses the balance, giving a comprehensive overview of Poland's participation in World War II. Following their valiant but doomed defense of Poland in 1939, members of the Polish armed forces fought with the Allies wherever and however they could. With previously unpublished first-hand accounts, information never before seen in English, and rare photographs, this title provides a detailed analysis of the devastation the war brought to Poland, and the final betrayal when, having fought for freedom for six long years, Poland was handed to the Soviet Union." Order this book here from Barnes & Noble
"POLAND BETRAYED: The Nazi-Soviet Invasions of 1939 (Campaign Chronicles)"by D. G. Williamson
"From the Publisher: Hitler's attack on Poland in 1939 was the first brutal act in six years of world war, but the campaign is often overshadowed by the momentous struggle that followed across the rest of Europe. David Williamson, in this timely and thought-provoking study, reconstructs each stage of the battle in graphic detail. He looks at the precarious situation of the Polish nation caught between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, reconsiders the pre-war policies of the other European powers, particularly France and Britain, and assesses the state of the opposing armed forces before the Germans launched Operation White. In a vivid and fast-moving narrative he follows the course of the campaign as it moved across Poland in September 1939. His book should encourage a fresh understanding of the Polish-German war and of its significance for the wider conflagration that followed. Critical episodes in the German offensive are re-examined: the mock attack at Gleiwitz, the battles at Westerplatte and Bzura, the siege of Warsaw and the impact of the intervention of the Red Army.
Throughout the narrative, first-hand accounts of soldiers and civilians who were caught up in events are used to give an insight into the experience of the war. The author dispels myths that persist about the course of the campaign - the apparent destruction of the Polish air force, the Poles' use of cavalry - and he draws attention to often overlooked flaws in German military organization. He also records the immediate aftermath of the Polish capitulation - the division of Poland between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union and the fate of the captured Polish troops." Order this book from Amazon
"I Saw Poland Betrayed: An American ambassador reports to the American people"by Arthur Bliss Lane, United States Ambassador to Poland, 1944-1947
"This book is much more than an account for the disgraceful sellout of Poland to the Soviet Union by the west and the brutal imposition of a Soviet puppet state. It is nothing less than a one-volume history of Poland from 1944-1947. It provides so much detail in just one book, and includes such things as pictures of then-General Eisenhower's visit to Poland. Lane devotes some detail to the double-dealing of Roosevelt behind the Poles' backs. The sellout of Poland included President Roosevelt openly lying to Polish-American leader Charles Rozmarek, even using a prewar map of Poland as part of the deception (p. 96). Throughout his travels across Poland, Lane was keenly aware of the terror created by the Communist secret police (U. B., or UB). He was well aware of the fact that free elections were unimaginable under such circumstances, long before the farcical elections of January 17, 1947 that officially brought the Communists to power. Soon thereafter, Lane could not take it any more. He resigned his position as ambassador in order that he could freely speak to Americans about the crime of betrayal that had been done to Poland.
Lane (p. 181) pointed out that the definition of a Fascist was often very elastic: "...that some well-informed persons had even gone so far as to define a Fascist as a person not in one hundred per cent agreement with Communism." Left-wingers had used the term Fascist in this manner since time immemorial. Lane also includes a statement of Stalin saying that, whatever the negative American response, Americans will soon forget about it and move on to other things (p. 312). Ah, the more things change, the more they remain the same!" Reviewed by Jan Peczkis Order this book from Amazon
"Hollywood's War with Poland, 1939-1945"by M.B.B. Biskupski
From the Publisher: "During World War II, Hollywood studios supported the war effort by making patriotic movies designed to raise the nation's morale. They often portrayed the combatants in very simple terms: Americans and their allies were heroes, and everyone else was a villain. Norway, France, Czechoslovakia, and England were all good because they had been invaded or victimized by Nazi Germany. Poland, however, was represented in a negative light in numerous movies. In Hollywood's War with Poland, 1939-1945, M. B. B. Biskupski draws on a close study of prewar and wartime films such as To Be or Not to Be (1942), In Our Time (1944), and None Shall Escape (1944). He researched memoirs, letters, diaries, and memoranda written by screenwriters, directors, studio heads, and actors to explore the negative portrayal of Poland during World War II. Biskupski also examines the political climate that influenced Hollywood films". Features: The Polish Presence in American Cinema before 1939; Poland in the Second World War; Radical Hollywood and Poland; The Roosevelt Administration and Film during the War; Hollywood's Version of the War: The Polish Films; Poland: Fleeting, Ambiguous, or Omitted; Hollywood and the American Poles during the War; Why Hollywood Was at War with the Poles. More about the "Hollywood's War with Poland here ... Buy this book from Barnes & Noble
"When God Looked the Other Way: An Odyssey of War, Exile, and Redemption" by Wesley Adamczyk
Often overlooked in accounts of World War II is the Soviet Union's quiet yet brutal campaign against Polish citizens, a campaign that included, we now know, war crimes for which the Soviet and Russian governments only recently admitted culpability. Standing in the shadow of the Holocaust, this episode of European history is often overlooked. Wesley Adamczyk's gripping memoir, When God Looked the Other Way, now gives voice to the hundreds of thousands of victims of Soviet barbarism. - "I have read many descriptions of the Siberian odyssey and of other forgotten wartime episodes. But none of them is more informative, more moving, or more beautifully written than When God Looked the Other Way.” - From the Foreword by Norman Davies, author of Europe: A History and Rising ’44: The Battle for Warsaw
"The Forgotten Few" The Polish Air Force in the Second World War by Adam Zamoyski
From the Publisher: "By the beginning of 1941, there was a fully fledged Polish Air Force operating alongside the RAF [...] All in all, the Polish Air Force shot down 745 enemy aircraft, with another 175 unconfirmed, destroyed a further 25 on the ground and damaged 259. They dropped thousands of bombs, laid hundreds of mines, flew a total of 102,486 sorties, notching up 290,895 operational flying hours, and took part in virtually every type of RAF operation. They achieved this at a cost of 1,973 killed and 1,388 wounded. they won 342 British gallantry awards as well as 15 American ones. "In looking back over the war years," wrote a senior RAF officer in 1946, "I wondered if mankind is yet aware of the credit that is their due." It probably never will be. It rarely falls to heroes to receive their reward. This is the story of who they were, where they came from, what they did, and their fate after the war's end."
"Warsaw 1920 - Lenin's Failed Conquest of Europe"by Adam Zamoyski
From the Publisher: In 1920 the new Soviet state was a mess, following a brutal civil war, and the best way of ensuring its survival appeared to be to export the revolution to Germany, itself economically ruined by defeat in World War I and racked by internal political dissension. Between Russia and Germany lay Poland, a nation that had only just recovered its independence after more than a century of foreign oppression. But it was economically and militarily weak and its misguided offensive to liberate the Ukraine in the spring of 1920 laid it open to attack. Egged on by Trotsky, Lenin launched a massive westward advance under the flamboyant Marshal Tukhachevsky. All that Great Britain and France had fought for over four years now seemed at risk. By the middle of August the Russians were only a few kilometers from Warsaw, and Berlin was less than a week's march away. Then the Miracle of the Vistula occurred: the Polish army led by Jozef Pilsudski regrouped and achieved one of the most decisive victories in military history. As a result, the Versailles peace settlement survived, and Lenin was forced to settle for Communism in one country. The battle for Warsaw bought Europe nearly two decades of peace, and communism remained a mainly Russian phenomenon, subsuming many of the autocratic and Byzantine characteristics of Russia's Tsarist tradition." Order this book from Amazon.Com
A Question of Honor is the gripping, little-known, and brilliantly told story of the scores of Polish fighter pilots who helped save England during the Battle of Britain and of their stunning betrayal by the United States and England at the end of World War II. [...] A Question of Honor also gives us a revelatory history of Poland during World War II and of the many thousands in the Polish armed forces who fought with the Allies. It tells of the country's unending struggle against both Hitler and Stalin, its long battle for independence, and the tragic collapse of that dream in the "peace" that followed. Visit Lynne Olson And Stanley Cloud's Website to order this book The Polish 303 "Kosciuszko" fighter squadron was the highest-scoring Allied unit in the Battle of Britain. The highest scoring ace of the Battle of Britain was actually a Czech pilot, Sergeant Josef Frantisek, DFM, an "Honorary Pole" who flew with 303 until his death on October 8, 1940. "His Polish friends buried Frantisek at the Polish Airforce Cemetery in Northolt on October 10, 1940, where he is still resting. He stayed with the Poles forever." Visit the WW II Ace Stories Here ...
“Enigma: How the Poles Broke the Nazi Code” by Wladyslaw Kozaczuk
From the Publisher: "The Enigma codes would not have been broken if it were not for the knowledge of Polish mathematicians" said Britain's Prince Andrew. The Polish effort in breaking Enigma's code shortened World War II in Europe by 6 to 12 months, sparing hundreds of thousand of casualties and saving Western Europe from occupation by the Red Army. This, however, did little to help Poland, which was abandoned to the mercy of communism by its allies. Fifty years of oppression brought economic disaster and personal suffering to its 35 million people. None of the Polish cryptologists received any recognition from the French, British or Americans. Please visit the Virtual Bletchley Park to learn how Polish mathematicians broke the unbreakable German Enigma cipher code and gave the Allies a priceless gift ...
“Poles Apart, The Polish Airborne At the Battle of Arnhem” by George F. Cholewczynski, Sarpedon Publishers - ISBN 1853671657.
From the Publisher: " Seldom have soldiers fought under conditions as poignant as did the Poles in MARKET GARDEN. Originally formed to support an uprising in its homeland against the Nazis, the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade was thrown into the inferno of Arnhem just as the Polish Home Army was rising against the Germans in Warsaw [Uprising]. As the Poles fought and died in support of their Western Allies in Holland, the citizens of burning Warsaw looked skyward for their paratroopers to save them from the Germans, as the Russian Army sat across the Vistula awaiting their own turn at occupation. Unlike the gallant soldiers of other Allied armies, many Polish paratroopers would never see their homeland again, even after ultimate victory. An inscription on the monument for the people of Holland reads: "To the People of Gelderland. 50 years ago British & Polish Airborne soldiers fought here against overwhelming odds to open the way into Germany and bring the war to an early end. Instead we brought death and destruction for which you have never blamed us. This stone marks our admiration for your great courage remembering especially the woman who tended our wounded. In the long winter that followed your families risked death by hiding Allied soldiers and airmen while members of the Resistance helped many to safety. You took us then into your homes as fugitives and friends we took you forever into our hearts. This strong bond will continue long after we are all gone. 1944-SEPTEMBER-1994"
"All Men Are Brothers"Written and published in Holland by Andries Hoekstra.
This book is a tribute to the Polish soldiers and airmen who were killed during the Operation Market Garden in September 1944. The introduction tells the reader why and how the 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade Group was formed and the important part its commander Major-General Stanislaw F. Sosabowski played in this process. These soldiers and officers trained hard for one goal only; the liberation of Poland. Instead, they landed near Arnhem and many of them would never see their beloved Poland again. Please support the Market Garden website by purchasing this book.
"The Black Devils' March - A Doomed Odyssey"by Evan McGilvray.
The 1st Polish Armoured Division under command of General Stanislaw Maczek in Normandy, and the Operation Tractable." As he was not considered by the British to be an Allied soldier, General Stanislaw Maczek was denied combatant rights and a military pension by the British, and until 1960 worked in England as a bartender in an Edinburgh hotel. After his death at the age of 102 in 1994, Stanislaw Maczek was buried at the Polish military cemetery in Breda, Netherlands, alongside his soldiers. "By the night of 18 August 1944, twenty German divisions were trapped in the Falaise region. During the night there had been a let up in the allied bombing of the Germans, which had allowed for the movement to the east by twelve of the twenty units, still operating as complete units: 3rd Parachute, 84th, 276th, 277th, 326th, 353rd, and 363 Infantry Divisions [...] By the time the Falaise Gap was closed on August 21, 1944, the 1st Polish Armored Division had, for six days, defied ferocious and sustained attacks by two SS corps, often accompanied by Wehrmacht troops
[...] After the battle for the Maczuga was over; the carnage was assessed. The commander of the Canadian Corps, General Guy Simonds, after visiting the battlefield said that he had never seen such wholesale havoc in his life [...] By holding their captured territory against determined German attacks the Poles had been crucial in the closing of the Falaise Gap. Twenty years later, President Dwight D. Eisenhower will say "No other battlefield presented such a horrible sight of death, hell, and total destruction." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"No Simple Victory", World War II in Europe, 1939-1945 by Norman Davies
From the Publisher: "One of the world's leading historians re-examines World War II and its outcome. If history really belongs to the victor, what happens when there's more than one side declaring victory? That's the conundrum Norman Davies unravels in his absorbing new book No Simple Victory. Far from being a revisionist history, this is instead a clear-eyed reappraisal, offering new insight by reevaluating well-established facts, as well as pointing out lesser-known ones. Davies asks readers to reconsider what they know about World War II, and how the received wisdom might be biased or incorrect. He poses simple questions that have complicated and unexpected answers. For instance, Can you name the five biggest battles of the war in Europe? Or, What were the main political ideologies that were contending for supremacy? The answers to these and other questions—and the implications of those answers—will surprise even those who feel that they are experts on the subject." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
“Allen Paul has thoroughly researched the murders, but more important, he has laid bare the massive coverup of the murders and of the Soviet guilt—a coverup that appears to have involved Roosevelt and Churchill, as well as Stalin.” - The Boston Globe.
Twenty years ago, Allen Paul wrote the first post-communist account of one of the greatest but least-known tragedies of the 20th century: Stalin’s annihilation of Poland’s officer corps and massive deportation of so-called “bourgeoisie elements” to Siberia. Today, these brutal events are symbolized by one word, Katyn - a crime that still bitterly divides Poles and Russians. Paul’s richly updated account covers Russian attempts to recant their admission of guilt for the murders in Katyn´ Forest and includes recently translated documents from Russian military archives, eyewitness accounts of two perpetrators, and secret official minutes published here for the first time that confirm U.S. government cover-up of the crime continued long after the war ended.
"Paul’s masterful narrative recreates what daily life was like for three Polish families amid momentous events of World War II—from the treacherous Nazi-Soviet invasion in 1939 to a rigged election in 1947 that sealed Poland’s doom. At the heart of the drama is the Poles’ uncommon belief in “victory in defeat”—that their struggles made them strong and that freedom and independence, inevitably, would be regained". Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Class Cleansing, The Massacre at Katyn" by Victor Zaslavsky
From the Publisher: "Revisiting the events of the 1940 Katyn Massacre, in which some 25,000 Polish prisoners of war were shot by the Soviet secret police on Stalin's orders, Victor Zaslavsky explores a paradigmatic and terrifying example of the policy of class cleansing practiced in the Soviet Union and its occupied territories during World War II. By blaming the Katyn Massacre on the Nazis, the Soviets constructed one of the greatest historiographical falsifications of the twentieth century. Based on secret documents of the Soviet regime that became available only after its collapse, Zaslavsky unearths the methods used to create and maintain the Soviet 'official version' of what happened at Katyn, a process involving the complicity of Western governments and left-leaning historians, which resulted in the upholding of this falsification until the fall of the Soviet Union." About the author: Victor Zaslavsky was born in Leningrad in 1937 and forced to emigrate from the Soviet Union in 1974. He has taught at the University of Leningrad, Memorial University of St John's, Canada, University of California, Berkeley, Stanford Univeristy and Universities of Venice, Rome, Naples and Florence. His work has earned him the 2008 Hannah Arendt Award for Political Thought, and he has been a member of the editorial Board of Telos for more than thirty years. Order this book from Amazon
"The Black Book of Communism"Already famous throughout Europe, this Already famous throughout Europe, this international bestseller plumbs recently opened archives in the former Soviet bloc to reveal the actual, practical accomplishments of Communism around the world: terror, torture, famine, mass deportations, and massacres. Astonishing in the sheer detail it amasses, the book is the first comprehensive attempt to catalogue and analyze the crimes of Communism over seventy years.
As the death toll mounts—as many as 25 million in the former Soviet Union, 65 million in China, 1.7 million in Cambodia, and on and on—the authors systematically show how and why, wherever the millenarian ideology of Communism was established, it quickly led to crime, terror, and repression. An extraordinary accounting, this book amply documents the unparalleled position and significance of Communism in the hierarchy of violence that is the history of the twentieth century.
From the Publisher: "Professor Michael Foot is indisputably the greatest authority on the activities of SOE in Europe during WW2. In Six Faces of Courage he selects six of the bravest of the brave agents and describes their backgrounds, activities and characters. Truly inspiring reading complemented by an updated introduction that sets the scene superbly. This excellent and successful book gives the reader a real insight to what it meant to be a SOE agent in Nazi-occupied Europe". Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Books About Holocaust"Recommendations:
“Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust”by E. Thomas Wood and Stanislaw M. Jankowski
From the Publisher: "Captured by the Gestapo in 1940 he was savagely tortured. Afraid that the Germans would extract secrets from him he slashed his wrists. But after the suicide attempt failed, he escaped from a hospital with the help of an underground commando team. His work had just begun. Karski, a Roman Catholic, developed a keen concern for the plight of the Jews under Nazi domination. In 1942 Jewish leaders asked him to carry a desperate message to Allied leaders: the news of Hitler's effort to exterminate the Jews of Europe. Surviving Soviet captivity and Gestapo torture, Jan Karski escaped occupied Poland in 1942 and delivered to the West documentation of Hitler's Holocaust plans --the total extermination of the Jews. His story is a fascinating tale of wartime politics and dauntless human courage." Publisher: Wiley, 1996, ISBN-10: 0471145734, ISBN-13: 978-0471145738 Order this book here from Barnes & Noble
"An Eye for an Eye" by John Sack
From the Publisher: "Not for sixty years has a book been so brutally (and, in the end, unsuccessfully) suppressed as An Eye for an Eye. One major newspaper, one major magazine, and three major publishers paid $40,000 for it but were scared off. One printed 6,000 books, then pulled them. Two dozen publishers read An Eye for an Eye and praised it. “Shocking,” “Startling,” “Astonishing,” “Mesmerizing,” Extraordinary,” they wrote to the author John Sack. “It was riveted,” “I was bowled over, ”I love it,” they wrote, but all two dozen rejected it. Finally, BasicBooks published An Eye for an Eye. It “sparked a furious controversy,” said Nesweek. It became a best-seller in Europe but was s shunned in America that it also became, in the words of New York, “The Book They Dare Not Review.” Since then, both 60 Minutes and The New York Times have corroborated what Sock wrote: that at the end of World War II, thousands of Jews sought revenge for the Holocaust. They set up 1,255 concentration camps for German civilians – German men, women, children, and babies. There they beat, whipped, tortured and murdered the Germans. “These events are vivid, the language is powerful, the conclusions appear just. The book should be read and become part of the all too gruesome document the world calls history,” the New York Daily News. Order this book from Amazon.Com
"Forgotten Holocaust, The Poles under German Occupation 1939-1944" by Richard C. Lukas
From the Publisher: Since its first publication in 1986, this book has become a classic of World War II literature. The revised edition includes a short history of Zegota, the underground government organization working to save the Jews, and an annotated listing of many Poles executed by the Germans for trying to shelter and save the Jews. As Norman Davies concludes, the book "effectively puts to rest those most harmful stereotypes about 'Nazi murderers,' 'Jewish victims' and 'Polish bystanders.' In reality, the murderers were not just Nazis; the victims were not just Jews; and bystanding was one of the least representative of Polish wartime activities." Read more about the "Forgotten Holocaust" here ...
"Two Flags" by Marian Apfelbaum- The Untold Story of the Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy (Jewish Military Union - ZZW), a Jewish Patriot military formation during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, published Gefen Publishing House.
From the Publisher: "The Warsaw ghetto uprising was planned and accomplished by two organizations, the ZOB (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa – Jewish Fighting Organization) and the ZZW (Zydowska Zwiazek Wojskowy – Jewish Military Union). While the part of the ZOB is well known though multiple books and articles, the part of the ZZW has been largely ignored for political reasons. Using extensive primary source material from Polish, Jewish and German sources, much of it here translated into English for the first time, the role of the ZZW is reported and analyzed, with special attention given to the fierce battle waged over the Polish and Jewish flags hoisted over the ghetto [...] In 1950, the historian Bernard Mark, writing in Warsaw, already embedded in the Soviet orbit, commented on the disturbing tendency to minimize the contribution of 'the other.' That of course, did not prevent him, a short time later, from falling into the same trap – though clearly given the political constraints under which he labored, his own politically tainted scholarship can be well understood as a product of its time and place.
The narrative that ultimately did emerge – largely based on initial survivor accounts – acquired the status of sacred canon. To the general public, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is the story of Mordechai Anielewicz and his band of Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa [ZOB], Jewish Combat Organization, fighters resisting the Germans." Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Fraternal Enemies, Chapter 2: The Founding of the ZZW, Chapter 3: In the Ghetto, Chapter 4: The “Transfer” – Summer of 1942, Chapter 5: After the Massacre, Chapter 6: The Resistance of January 1943, Chapter 7: Last Preparations, Chapter 8: The Uprising, Chapter 9: Agendas and Obfuscations, Appendix 1: Documents Concerning Iwanski, Appendix 2: Documents Concerning, Tadeusz Bednarczyk Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Poland's Holocaust" by Tadeusz Piotrowski
From the Publisher: With the end of World War I, a new Republic of Poland emerged on the maps of Europe, made up of some of the territory from the first Polish Republic, including Wolyn and Wilno, and significant parts of Belarus, Upper Silesia, Eastern Galicia, and East Prussia. The resulting conglomeration of ethnic groups left many substantial minorities wanting independence. The approach of World War II provided the minorities leaders a new opportunity in their nationalist movements, and many sided with one or the other of Poland s two enemies the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in hopes of achieving their goals at the expense of Poland and its people. Based on primary and secondary sources in numerous languages (including Polish, German, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Russian and English), this work examines the roles of the ethnic minorities in the collapse of the Republic and in the atrocities that occurred under the occupying troops. The Polish government s response to mounting ethnic tensions in the prewar era and its conduct of the war effort are also examined. Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Out of the Inferno - Poles Remember Holocaust" Edited by Richard C. Lukas
From the Publisher: "Richard Lukas's book, encompassing the wartime recollections of sixty "ordinary" Poles under Nazi occupation, constitutes a valuable contribution to a new perspective on World War II. Lukas presents gripping first-person accounts of the years 1939-1945 by Polish Christians from diverse social and economic backgrounds. Their narratives, from both oral and written sources, contribute enormously to our understanding of the totality of the Holocaust. Many of those who speak in these pages attempted, often at extreme peril, to assist Jewish friends, neighbors, and even strangers who otherwise faced certain death at the hands of the German occupiers. Some took part in the underground resistance movement. Others, isolated from the Jews' experience and ill informed of that horror, were understandably preoccupied with their own survival in the face of brutal condition intended ultimately to exterminate or enslave the entire Polish population. These recollections of men and women are moving testimony to the human courage of a people struggling for survival against the rule of depravity. The power of their painful witness against the inhumanities of those times is undeniable." Read excerpts here ...Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"After the Holocaust: Polish-Jewish Conflict in the Wake of World War II " by Marek Jan Chodakiewicz
From the Publisher: "Conventional wisdom holds that Jews killed in Poland immediately after World War II were victims of ubiquitous Polish anti-Semitism. This book traces the roots of Polish-Jewish conflict after the war, demonstrating that it was a two-sided phenomenon and not simply an extension of the Holocaust. The author argues that violence developed after the Soviet takeover of Poland amid postwar retribution and counter-retribution and was exacerbated by the breakdown of law and order and a raging Polish anti-Communist insurgency. Meanwhile, Jewish Communists fought to establish a revolutionary Marxist-Leninist regime. Some Jewish avengers endeavored to extract justice from Poles who allegedly harmed Jews during the War and in some cases Jews attempted to reclaim property confiscated by the Nazis. These phenomena reinforced the stereotype of zydokomuna, a Jewish-Communist conspiracy, and Poles reacted with violence." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Forgotten Survivors: Polish Christians Remember the Nazi Occupation" Edited by Richard C. Lukas
From the Publisher: "Wanda Lorenc watched horrified as the first Wehrmacht soldiers stormed into Warsaw. Jan Porembski witnessed the mass executions of Polish civilians. Barbara Makuch became a courier for the Polish underground until she was caught and tortured. Jan Komski was thrown into the very first transport to Auschwitz and observed its rapid expansion firsthand. But, unlike the nearly three million other Polish Christians (and three million Polish Jews) who died during World War II, they survived.
Richard Lukas presents the compelling eyewitness accounts of these and other Polish Christians who suffered at the hands of the Germans. They bear witness to unspeakable horrors endured by those who were tortured, forced into slavery, shipped off to concentration camps, and even subjected to medical experiments. Their stories provide a somber reminder that non-Jewish Poles were just as likely as Jews to suffer at the hands of the Nazis, who viewed them with nearly equal contempt." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Zegota: the Council for Aid to Jews in Occupied Poland 1942-45" by Irene Tomaszewski & Tecia Werbowski
From the Editorial Review: "For those readers familiar with Polish history of this period, there will be few revelations as to what aid Poles gave Jews, for others, the revelations will be impressive and beyond belief, made as they are against the stark background of the times and place. The authors, both victims of Poland's wartime trial, one a Christian, the other a Jew, give a harrowing account, however brief, of what life was like for Poles and Jews alike in Nazi-occupied Poland and what and how help was rendered. Zegota must be considered a noble page in Polish history. Albeit the shameful acts performed by a segment of Polish society against Jews- the extortionists in particular who surrendered Jews to the Nazi authorities for sums of money- there were also acts of heroism and sacrifices that went well beyond the ordinary task of helping. It is estimated that between 40 and 60 thousand Jews survived in the war living amid Poles and that another 10-15 thousand Jews survived in partisan hands hiding out in the forests. And as cited by the authors, at least 3,000 Poles gave their lives for helping Jews, while thousands more were imprisoned, tortured and sent to concentration camps. Zbigniew Brzezinski described Zegota's work as "tantamount to Schindler's List multiplied a hundred-fold." Order this book from Amazon
"Burning Questions" a documentary by Mishael Porembski
An Emmy Award Winning Documentary About Polish Catholics in the Holocaust. From the publisher: Having won 6 awards including the Southeastern Emmy and The National American Library Association Selection of the year for 2000 and 2008, Burning Questions is a powerful, independent documentary which chronicles the journey of my father and myself as we travel back to Poland to explore his World War II memories as a Polish Catholic survivor of the Warsaw Uprising and Bergen Belsen Nazi concentration camp. During WWII, Poland lost six million of its citizens. Three million Jewish Poles and, less known, three million Christian Poles perished in concentration camps, forced labor, public executions and combat. Burning Questions examines the rebuilding of a broken past through the journey of my father, a seasoned network news cameraman, and myself, Mishael Porembski. In Poland I meet my father's family for the first time and he learns to face his past. Burning Questions also looks at the present-day relationship between Poland's Christians and Jews as they live together with this painful history. For filmmaker Mishael Porembski, award winning Burning Questions was a labor of love over a 7 year period.
She says" I created this program because being educated in the US public schools, I simply did not know the history of Polish Catholics under Nazi occupation. Which meant that I did not know why my own father, aunt and Grandmother went to a concentration camp. I thought it was some kind of horrific mistake. Only after reading The Forgotten Holocaust By Dr. Richard Lucas did I begin to wrap my mind around the whole picture. That is why I believe it is so important to get programs like Burning Questions into our schools and Universities. The legacy of our family's past is our responsibility to preserve. Many others helped this program come to fruition and for their efforts I will be eternally grateful. "Burning Questions" is a collective effort to leave a lasting legacy of the strength, hope and tenacity of the Polish people." Order this DVD from Amazon
"History of Soviet Union"Book Recommendations:
"Stalin, the Russians, and Their War 1941-1945" by Marius Broekmeyer
“The death factory at Majdanek, [concentration camp] near Lublin, left a terrible impression in Poland” says I. M. Tsidilkovski. “when we entered Majdanek, the air was still permeated with nauseating smell of burning. Simonov, who wrote the first article on Majdanek, says that the scene “wiped out everything that was in my memory before”. He describes the camp, the ovens, the piles of little children’s shoes, the administration lying spread over the ground, sees that there, in May 1943, Jakob Borghard, born in Rotterdam on 10 November 1918, was killed. The Russians forced thousands of German soldiers to see the camp and its horrors. “I can remember, “ noted Rybakov, “how we liberated German concentration camps in Poland. Cheering triumphantly, the prisoners from other countries set off free, for their Fatherland. And how the people from SMERSH registered our prisoners of war, emaciated, tortured, gloomy prisoners, interrogated them, drove them into trucks and sent them off to fresh investigations and interrogations; after all, according to Stalin, they were traitors. Finally, our NKVD boys had some real work.”
From the Publisher: "Until the advent of glasnost began to lift censorship in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, it was impossible for Russians in Russia to truthfully depict their own struggle against Nazi Germany. Even before World War II was over, the Soviet propaganda machine began to construct an official story: through enormous sacrifice, the Soviet people had gloriously freed themselves and the world from fascism, raising the hammer and sickle higher than ever on the ruins of Hitler's imperialist dreams.
In Stalin, the Russians, and Their War, however, Marius Broekmeyer presents the testimony of Russian participants, eyewitnesses, and historians of World War II to reveal not a heroic struggle, but a war marred by catastrophes, errors, and lies. These testimonies openly discuss subjects omitted from official Soviet propaganda or glossed over in popular Western histories of the Allied victory in WWII—from purges within the Red Army and Soviet use of "punitive brigades" to the deployment of millions of poorly equipped soldiers to the front lines.
These are authentic and often shocking first-hand accounts. Such a vivid report on the day-to-day lives of Russian soldiers, officers, and citizens during World War II does not exist anywhere else in English." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"The Whispers - Private Life In Stalin's Russia" by Orlando Figes
From the Publisher: "How could human feelings and emotions retain any force in the moral vacuum of the Stalinist regime?" That's the question with which Orlando Figes begins The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. The answer is revealed in spellbinding, often harrowing tales of endurance, love, idealism, betrayal, and grief. Eschewing published memoirs in favor of personal testimony, the author of A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924 draws from countless letters, journals, documents, and interviews with ordinary Russians to capture life under the evolving Soviet regime from the period just after the revolution through the tumult of the "Five Year Plan," the living nightmare of the Great Terror, the Second World War, and the cycles of reform and repression which characterized Soviet life in the postwar period.
These stories don't merely record the horror of purges, denunciations, and mass arrests; Figes also portrays the idealistic fervor of the revolutionary generation, and the tragic beauty of simple family life under the shadow of an implacable power. His painstaking and inclusive method yields a majestic -- at times overwhelming -- profusion of narrative truth." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"Stalin and His Hangmen" by Donald Rayfield
From the Publisher: "Stalin did not act alone. The mass executions, the mock trials, the betrayals and purges, the jailings and secret torture that ravaged the Soviet Union during the three decades of Stalin’s dictatorship, were the result of a tight network of trusted henchmen (and women), spies, psychopaths, and thugs. At the top of this pyramid of terror sat five indispensable hangmen who presided over the various incarnations of Stalin’s secret police. Now, in his harrowing new book, Donald Rayfield probes the lives, the minds, the twisted careers, and the unpunished crimes of Stalin’s loyal assassins." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"The Soviet Story" Produced by Edvins Snore
From the Publisher: The 1st edition DVD release of the award-winning documentary by director Edvins Snore which tells the story of the Soviet regime and how the Soviet Union helped Nazi Germany instigate the Holocaust. Other subjects covered by the film include: - The Great Famine in Ukraine (1932/33) - The Katyn massacre (1940) - The SS-KGB partnership - French Communists and the Nazis - Soviet mass deportations - Medical experiments in the GULAG. The Soviet Story was filmed over 2 years in Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Germany, France, UK and Belgium. The film includes recently uncovered archive documents as well as interviews with former Soviet Military intelligence officials. As a result, The Soviet Story presents a truly unique insight into recent Soviet history, told by people, once Soviet citizens, who have first-hand knowledge of it.
The Soviet Story also discusses the impact of the Soviet legacy on modern day Europe. Listen to experts and European MPs discussing the implications of a selective attitude towards mass murder; and meet a woman describing the burial of her new born son in a GULAG concentration camp. The Soviet Story is a story of pain, injustice and realpolitik. The DVD contains the full 85 minute documentary feature, 25 minutes of bonus interviews, and a full color film booklet. The film is in English and this DVD edition includes subtitles in 15 languages: Czech, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish and Ukrainian (the subtitles are selected via a menu screen). The DVD is new, factory-sealed, NTSC Region 0 and shipped direct from the films producer. This edition is for Private Home Use. Libraries, Community Groups/Clubs, Universities, Endowments, etc. must purchase the appropriate licensed edition by emailing films (dot) perrystreetadvisors (dot)com. PAL format DVDs also available. Buy this DVD from Amazon.com
"The Chief Culprit - Stalin's Grand Design to Start World War II" by Viktor Suvorov
Viktor Suvorov reveals how Stalin conspired with German leaders to bypass the Versailles Treaty, which forbade German rearmament. Secretly, the Soviet Union trained German engineers and officers as well as provided bases and factories for war. In 1939, the nonaggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany allowed Hitler to proceed with his plans to invade Poland, fomenting war in Europe. Stalin emerges as a diabolical genius consumed by visions of a worldwide Communist revolution at any cost, the leader who wooed Hitler and Germany in his own effort to conquer the world. The author debunks the myth that the Soviet Union was a victim of Germany's aggression. Instead, he insists that Stalin neither feared Hitler nor mistakenly trusted him. Suvorov argues that after Germany occupied Poland, defeated France, and started to prepare for an invasion of Great Britain, Hitler's intelligence services detected the Soviet Union's preparations for a major war against Germany. In 1940, Germany drafted a preemptive war plan, which it launched in June 1941, the invasion of the USSR. Buy this book from Amazon.com
"Bloodlands, Europe Between Hitler & Stalin" by Timothy Snyder
From the Publisher: "Americans call the Second World War 'The Good War.' But before it even began, America’s wartime ally Josef Stalin had killed millions of his own citizens - and kept killing them during and after the war. Before Hitler was finally defeated, he had murdered six million Jews and nearly as many other Europeans. At war’s end, both the German and the Soviet killing sites fell behind the iron curtain, leaving the history of mass killing in darkness.
Bloodlands is a new kind of European history, presenting the mass murders committed by the Nazi and Stalinist regimes as two aspects of a single history, in the time and place where they occurred: between Germany and Russia, when Hitler and Stalin both held power. Assiduously researched, deeply humane, and utterly definitive, Bloodlands will be required reading for anyone seeking to understand the central tragedy of modern history." Order this book from Barnes & Noble
"New Lies For Old" by Anatoliy Golitsyn
VERY RARELY disclosures of information from behind the Iron Curtain throw new light on the roots of communist thought and action and challenge accepted notions on the operation of the communist system. We believe that this book does both these things. It is nothing if not controversial. It rejects conventional views on subjects ranging from Khrushchev's overthrow to Tito's revisionism, from Dubcek's liberalism to Ceausescu's independence, and from the dissident movement to the Sino-Soviet split. The author's analysis has many obvious implications for Western policy. It will not be readily accepted by those who have for long been committed to opposing points of view. But we believe that the debates it is likely to provoke will lead to a deeper understanding of the nature of the threat from international communism and, perhaps, to a firmer determination to resist it.
The author's services to the party and the KGB and the unusually long periods he spent in study, mainly in the KGB but also with the University of Marxism-Leninism and the Diplomatic School, make the author uniquely well qualified as a citizen of the West to write about the subjects covered in this book.
"Deception - Spies, Lies And How Russia Dupes the West" by Edward Lucas
In Russia itself Soviet-era spies, chief among them Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer, now run the country. They are known as Silovniki" or "Men of Power". The old KGB was decapitated in 1991 amid the Soviet collapse, but not uprooted. Instead it renamed itself, just as so often in the past. (Under Vladimir Lenin it was the Cheka; later it became the OGPU, then NKVD, NKGB, and finally the KGB.) It is now split into two: the FSB, which has inherited the repressive domestic apparatus of the old system, and the SVR, which is the heir of the Soviet foreign intelligence service; alongside both works the separate GRU military intelligence agency. Part of this book, therefore, deals with this deception: the story of how the ex-spooks and their friends, in effect in a criminal conspiracy, took over the world's largest countries, hugely enriching themselves and duping the West.
"The Man Without A Face - The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin" by Masha Gessen
A chilling and unflinching portrait of one of the most fearsome figures in world politics.
In 1999, the “Family” surrounding Boris Yeltsin went looking for a successor to the ailing and increasingly unpopular president. Vladimir Putin, with very little governmental or administrative experience—he’d been deputy mayor of St. Petersburg, and briefly, director of the secret police—nevertheless seemed the perfect choice: a “faceless” creature whom Yeltsin and his cronies could mold in their own image. Russia and an infatuated West were determined to see in him the progressive leader of their dreams—even as Putin, with ruthless efficiency, dismantled the country’s media, wrested control and wealth from the business class, and destroyed the fragile mechanisms of democracy. Within a few brief years, virtually every obstacle to his unbridled control was removed and every opposing voice silenced, with political rivals and critics driven into exile or to the grave.
Masha Gessen has experienced and reported this history firsthand, and brings it up to its present moment of unrest and uncertainty. Her spellbinding account of Putin’s rise and reign will stand as a classic of narrative nonfiction. Buy it from Branes & Noble
From the Publisher: "An Abiding Legacy" is the eagerly anticipated sequel to Chris Piechowski’s gripping and emotionally charged novel "Poles Apart: From Darkness, Fire and Chains" (978-1780030272). Set amidst the chaos and turmoil of the Second World War, "An Abiding Legacy" charts the incredible and courageous exploits of an elite covert group known simply as the Silent and Unseen, who had been charged by Winston Churchill to ‘set Europe ablaze’.
As a former senior policeman, Piechowski uses his well-honed investigative and interview skills to write with incredible insight, transporting the tension and peril of the War onto every page. This authentic and thoroughly researched novel chronicles a perilous, action-packed journey that is sure to appeal to fans of Lee Child, Andy McNab, and those who enjoyed Poles Apart.
From the Publisher: "This is a powerful and compelling thriller, the story of a young boy of Polish descent, born in Canada who is unable to escape the burden of history. Teddy Labden finds that try as he might he cannot escape his immigrant past and the mystery of his father's record in Eastern Europe. Whilst England draws him ever closer to her bosom Teddy meets a darker side of life full of connections and coincidences that lead him into the dangers of the Secret Service. When the fog of war interrupts his playboy existence Teddy begins to see that like a cog in a machine he can be used or he can become the engineer of events. Through a variety of affairs he looks for the love and affection that is missing in his life. But can he find it? His Polish upbringing forces him to take unexpected sides with consequences that put his life in danger from the Russian agents embedded in MI6. He becomes involved in the fringes of the political assassination of the Polish Prime Minister, but who gave the orders? Teddy is helped by a variety of friends to survive in a world of intrigue hidden from ordinary men and women. "The Engineer" is the first part of his trilogy which concerns events and personalities that moulded the lives of the ordinary people in Europe who sought no more than a better life through revolution and change in the twentieth century." (364 pages, ISBN 9781907084010), published by Derwen. Order this book from Amazon
From the Publisher: "This is a gripping story of espionage, love and conflict in Eastern Europe in the years immediately following World War II. Poland had been betrayed by the Allies and in the ensuing Civil War, unreported in the West, its pleas for help went unheeded. Forests echoed with sounds of gunfire as Partisans of many nationalities fought against the Red tide, dying for the freedom America promoted but failed to assist. In the chaos created by the Red invasion of Eastern Europe millions became refugees and others were displaced by Stalin's ethnic cleansing and replaced in their homelands by ethnic Russians. The British and Americans hid behind the Iron Curtain they blamed on Stalin but which they themselves had created. Teddy Labden, now a freelance agent working with British, American and the Free exiled Polish secret services, works to uncover who has fed the Soviets the military intelligence that has allowed the Iron Curtain to descend. The forests become silent and pro-Western Partisans, men and women, are eliminated. Teddy vows to seek revenge and, with the help of the mysterious Witek, assists in the assassination of Stalin. Like so many others, Teddy loses his wealth, his love, his country and his sanity. The politicians have no love for Teddy or ordinary people as they continue to steal people's lives in the name of a meaningless freedom, in order to maintain a political elite without honour. This is the second novel in the trilogy "Chronicles of Love & Honour" and continues the story of 'THE ENGINEER'." (362 pages, ISBN 9781907084041), published by Derwen. Order this book from Amazon
"A Man Without a Breath" by Philip Kerr
From the Publisher: Berlin, March, 1943. A month has passed since the stunning defeat at Stalingrad [...] Now word has reached Berlin of a Red massacre of Polish officers in the Katyn Forest near Smolensk [, Russia ...] For once, both the Wehrmacht and Propaganda Minister Goebbels want the same thing: irrefutable evidence of this Russian atrocity [...] Both parties agree that the ensuing investigation must be overseen by a professional trained in sifting evidence and interrogating witnesses [...] And so Bernie Gunther is dispatched to Smolensk, where truth is as much a victim of war as those poor dead Polish officers. Smolensk, March, 1943. Army Group Center is an enclave of Prussian aristocrats who have owned the Wehrmacht almost as long as they’ve owned their baronial estates [...] The wisecracking, rough-edged Gunther is not a good fit [...] But he has a far bigger concern than sharp elbows and supercilious stares, for somewhere in this mix is a cunning and savage killer who has left a trail of bloody victims....Order this book from Amazon
"Polish Military History for Children" Recommended Books.
This is a story about a remarkable bear who displayed almost human characteristics....and yet it is a story about so much more. It is a story that gives a glimpse into Poland's history during very dark times. Readers will gain a fascinating insight into the people's courage and bravery during these times of great upheaval. Sadly, these times in Poland's history have been largely forgotten or ignored whilst the country was under Communist rule. Voytek`s story will take you through the Second World War from 1942 and on to 1963. From the mountains in Persia (Iran) where Voytek was born....To the middle east and his adventures!........To the Battle for Monte Cassino (Italy), regarded as one of the hardest fought battles of WWII.....and finally to Scotland, Voytek`s new home. Read the "Daily Mail" article about Wojtek the Soldier Bear here ... More photos and articles about "Woytek" can be found at:
"Propaganda Techniques, Psychological Warfare, Active Measures" Recommended Books, Articles, Resources:
"Russian Historical Propaganda in 2004-2009" by Aleksander Marek Szczyglo (b. October 27, 1963 – d. April 10, 2010 in Smolensk, Russia)
The origins of modern Russian historical propaganda can be traced back to the period of deep political and economic crisis during the presidency of Boris Yeltsin. Principal aim of historical propaganda initiated by his successor is to base self-identity of the citizens of Russian Federation on superpower idea and to create convenient political climate in Kremlin’s relations with the former communist bloc countries. Disinformation plays key role in historical propaganda – similarly to every other type of propaganda. The following techniques are applied: intoxication (denying, reversing facts); manipulation (true thesis used in such a way that leads to false conclusions); modification of motives or circumstances (describing motive or reason for particular action in a way that they become advantageous only to one party); and interpretation (particular selection of words that evoke positive or negative association among the recipients). Russian historical propaganda embraces broad spectrum of disinformation techniques. In practice, it is accomplished by thematic campaigns with participation of the Russian (as well as selected – western) mass media, including the Internet. Download "Russian Historical Propaganda" Here
"Russian Image Management. Making Unpleasant Historical Truths About Poland Disappear: The KGB’s latest intelligence coup, and NATO’s latest intelligence disaster"by Eugene Poteat, LL.D, President, Association of Former Intelligence Officers.
"Into this sordid history comes the recent misbegotten idea by the Polish people to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the 1940 slaughter of 22,000 Polish officers and others in the Katyn Forest (near Smolensk, Russia) carried out by the Soviet secret police: an event long denied by the USSR, and continued by modern propagandistic, Putin-inspired Russian “historians.” The slaughter came under orders from Lavrentiy Beria, head of the NKVD, and endorsed by Stalin and the Politburo. Beria was Vladamir Putin’s KGB predecessor. The Katyn forest victims included 8,000 military officers, the rest being doctors, professors, lawmakers, police officers, public servants, landowners, factory owners, lawyers, priests, and anyone considered Poland’s “intelligentsia.” [...] The trip to Smolensk [by Polish President Lech Kaczynski, and other dignitaries] was expected to highlight Russia finally admitting culpability in the massacre, after long having blamed it on the Germans, an atrocity they had tried to conceal for over 70 years. As for the reception committee, it had different ideas. Putin wasn’t looking forward to such an occasion. Incuded in this poisonous reception brew was President Kaczynski’s well-known public criticism of Moscow and Putin, a habit that has ended the lives of others within Russia — and abroad. A few discouraging Russian requirements — such as that Kaczynski could not attend in any official capacity — did not halt the Poles. Kaczynski would go anyway on non-official, “personal” business. To Russians, such a distinction would be meaningless, not lessening the possible international excoriation of such an event. A problem ripe for a modern, Russian solution: a tragic, “natural” accident." Download "Russian Image Management" here ... Read Russian Image Management On-Line ...