National Armed Forces - Narodowe Sily Zbrojne - NSZ - The Doomed Soldiers

The Doomed Soldiers
Polish Underground Soldiers 1944-1963 - The Untold Story

Freedom And Independence - Wolnosc i Niezawislosc - WiN - The Doomed Soldiers



Faces of the Polish Secret Police "Bezpieka" men who took part in the destruction of the "Wiarusy" partisan unit.

"If it is possible at all, that an image of evil can be reflected in a human face, than perhaps, the faces of the 'bezpieka' functionaries are its best example. For 45-years, the work in the Urzad Bezpieczenstwa, and Sluzba Bezpieczenstwa, was the most shameful profession in the entire apparatus of the communist regime. This work was undertaken not only by those who were weak enough to succumb to the temptation of inflicting violence with impunity, but also by those insufficiently equipped to reject it, and those who without any scruples could partake in the murderous enterprise of crime. They were surrounded with preponderant fear, and also with a prevailing contempt - even from within the ranks of their protectors, and willing collaborators. For there aren't any more insulting words in the Polish language than those [used to refer to them] like 'ubek', 'bezpieka', or 'esbek'"

Excerpt from the Preface to "The Faces of the Krakow's Bezpieka", at al, Institute of National Remembrance, Krakow, 2006

Click here to see dossiers of other Polish secret police functionaries.

Franciszek Szlachcic - Polish Secret Police UB functionary

Franciszek Szlachcic

Father's Name: Jan
Born: Feb. 5, 1920
Rank(s) Held : Captain - May 9, 1946; Major- Dec. 22, 1947; Colonel - Oct. 30, 1952; Brigadier General - Jan. 28, 1963.
Bezpieka Service History: Director of Counter-Intelligence at PUBP in Chrzanow from 02/01/45; Senior Investigator in the Unit for Combating Banditism - from 03/04/46; Head of the PUBP office in Olkusz- from 02/01/47; Participant in 3-month-long PUBP executive training course conducted by the Ministry of Public Security (MBP) from July to August 3, 1947; Investigator attached to the WUBP in Krakow from 02/01/48; Deputy Director of WUBP in Krakow from 05/01/49; Director of WUBP in Osztyn from 04/01/50; Participant in 6-months-long course of the Political Executive Cadres of the Ministry of Public Security (MBP) from 04/16/51; Director of the WUBP in Olsztyn from 11/01/51; Director of the WUBP in Rzeszow from 03/01/53; Assigned to the Personnel Department of MBP from 02/15/1954; Participant in 1-year-long special course in Moscow from 04/09/54 to 04/12/55; Director of WUdsBP (Voivodeship Office for Public Security) in Katowice from 05/20/55; Deputy Commandant of the MO (People's Militia) for Public Security in Katowice from 01/01/57; Deputy Commandant of the Voivodship office of MO in Katowice from 01/09/57; Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs from 05/05/1962; Minister of Internal Affairs from 01/25/72 to 12/20/71

Stanislaw "Zdzich" Walach - Polish Secret Police UB functionary

Stanislaw Walach

Also Known as "Zdzich" Walach.
Father's Name: Szczepan
Born: April 30, 1919
Died: January 12, 1999
Rank(s) Held: 11/07/44 - Major; 10/30/52 - Lt. Colonel; 07/02/59 - Colonel with the MO (People's Militia)
Bezpieka Service History: Deputy Director of the PUBP office in Chrzanow from 01/27/45; Director of the PUBP in Chrzanow from 04/20/45; Director of the PUBP in Limanowa from 02/01/46; Director of the PUBP in Nowy Sacz from 04/01/47; Investigator with the Section III of the WUBP office in Krakow from 09/01/48; Investigator attached to the leadership of the Ministry of Public Security (MBP) from 05/01/52; Participant in training course of the Executive Cadres of the MBP from 11/24/52; Assigned to the Director of the Personnel Department of the MBP from 08/12/53; Director of the PUBP office in Kielce from 11/01/54; Deputy Director of the Voivodeship Office for Public Security (WUdsBP) in Kielce from 01/0155; Director of the WUdsBP in Kielce from 11/22/56; Assigned to the Director of the Department for Training and Personnel of the Command for Public Security (KdsBP) from 11/22/56; Deputy Commandant of the Voivodeship office of the MO (People's Militia) for State Security (SB) in Bialystok from 01/16/57; Second Deputy Director under Voivodeship Commandant of MO for State Security in Krakow from 08/01/59; First Deputy Director under Voivodeship Commandant of MO for State Security in Krakow from 03/15/69; Assigned to the Director of the Cadres Department of State Security SB/MSW from 09/03/74; Released from bezpieka on 02/15/76

Leon Niklas - Polish Secret Police UB "Bezpieka" operative.

Leon Niklas

Father's Name : Stanislaw
Born: April 11, 1920
Rank(s) Held: Sergeant - 07/27/46; Warrant Officer (pol. chorazy) - 07/16/48; Lt. - 07/22/50; Captain in MO (People's Militia) - 10/04/57; Captain in MON (pol. Ministry of National Defense) -08/24/57; Captain in MO - 10/04/57; Major in MO - 07/22/61; Colonel in MO - 07/22/70; Captain in MO (09/01/84); Colonel in MO 01/01/86.
Bezpieka Service History: Investigator at PUBP office in Inowroclaw from 01/11/46; Assigned to the Head of the WUBP in Krakow from 12/01/46; Investigator in Section 3, Department III of the WUBP in Krakow from 12/24/1946; Participant in the Executive Training conducted by the Central School of the Ministry of Public Security from 04/21/47 to 11/21/47; Senior Investigator in Section 2, Department III in the WUBP office in Krakow from 01/15/48; Senior Investigator Section III of the City Department of the WUBP in Krakow from 06/01/48; In charge of the Section 2, Department III of the WUBP office in Krakow from 12/01/49; Deputy Director of the Department III of the WUBP in Krakow from 10/01/50; Deputy Director of the Department III of the WUBP in Lublin from 07/01/51; Order for transfer to Lublin from 07/01/51 reversed; Assigned to the Personnel Department of the MSW (Ministry of Internal Affairs) from 02/15/52; Senior Investigator in Section 4, Squad III of the Department III of the MBP from 03/15/52; Senior Investigator Section 3, Squad III of the Department III of the MBP from 05/15/52; Investigator attached to the leadership of the Department III of the MBP from 06/01/53; Senior Investigator in Section 3, Squad I, Department III of the MBP from 06/15/54; Senior Investigator in Section 3, Squad IV of the Department III Command for the Public Security from 04/01/55; Operations officer in Section 3, Squad IV in the Department III Command for the Public Security from 04/01/56; Assigned to the Director of the Squad I of the Command for the Public Security from 11/01/56; Cipher clerk, Department I Command for the Public Security (cipher clerk, Embassy of the Polish People's Republic in Cairo) from 11/28/56; Field Agent with Group "Z", Section 2, Squad I of SB (pol. Sluzba Bezpieczensta / MSW (Ministry of Internal Affairs) - Cipher Clerk at the Embassy of PRL in Cairo from 01/01/57; Field Agent "Z" with Independent Section "A" SB MSW (cipher clerk, Embassy of PRL in Cairo) from 01/01/57; Officer in the Group "Z" with Independent Section "A" SB MSW (Cipher clerk, Embassy of PRL in Cairo) from 01/01/58; Field agent with Independent Section "A", Bureau "A" SB MSW from 12/19/58; Senior Operations Officer Squad V, Dpertment IIIA of SB MSW from 01/01/60; Senior Operations Officer with Section I Department IV of SB MSW from 06/15/62; Senior Operations Officer Section II, Department IV of SB MSW from 05/01/64; Transferred to Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MSZ) - Cipher Clerk, Embassy of PRL in Tel Aviv from 06/30/66; Investigator with Section II, Department IV of SB MSW, transferred to Ministry of Foreign Affairs (cipher clerk, Embassy of PRL in Tel Aviv) from 04/01/67; Investigator with Section II, Department IV of SB MSW from 07/01/67; Investigator with Section II, Department IV of SB MSW, transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (cipher clerk, Embassy of PRL in Copenhagen) from 11/27/67; Investigator with Section II, Department IV of SB MSW from 03/08/70; Released from duties 05/15/71; Employed as a guard during construction of the MSW building complex Nr. 134 from 02/01/72; Released from employment on 06/15/72; Employed as a teletype operator with JW 2669 in Szczytno from 02/12/74; Released from employment on 08/31/79; Rehired (in the rank of Captain) as an Investigator with Section II, Department IV of SB MSW from 09/01/84; Released from bezpieka on 11/30/86.

Marian Reniak - Marian Struzynski - Polish Secret Police

Above: Marian Struzynski vel. Marian Reniak, Polish secret police agent, traitor, and a "writer" ...

"Niebezpieczne Sciezki" by Marian Reniak: Treachery for Fun and Profit!

"Niebezpieczne Sciezki" by Marian Reniak:  Treachery for Fun and profit!

Once a traitor has gotten his former comrades butchered, and his new career with a tyranny established and prosperous; whatever is he to do when his new home collapses around him and his best buddies found to be tyrants and murderers? Why, write a book extolling his virtues and heroism, whether he was virtuous and heroic or not! Looking at the publisher’s blurb for "Niebezipeczne Sciezki" (Dangerous Paths):

“Niebezpieczne sciezki” are among the rarest memoirs written by the officer of Sluzba Bezpieczenstwa in our literature.

Not really true. Those memoirs, debriefing reports, were written in reports now available through the Lustration process.

Had it not been for the authentic facts, which make reading this book that much more valuable, it would be possible to consider this memoirs among the classics of sensational literature.

“Authentic facts” do make this book more interesting, since they don’t much appear in this book. Authentic fact and this book make for an extraordinary lab manual for falsification and spin. Any person and polity seeking unmerited power and wealth should study it closely. But it is better than sensationalist fiction; it’s sensationalist lies.

Following orders of his superiors, the author managed to infiltrate ranks of one of the gangs operating in the Podhale region. A risky, and dangerous, double-play role which he took upon himself lead to the liquidation of the gang whose criminal activities caused deaths of many innocent people.

He was following the orders of his superiors, and it was a “double play”, though the more common term is “double cross” but if he was really looking for a gang, i.e. a group of predatory and brutal crooks, he couldn’t have been further from his objective. The “Wiarusy” Partisan Unit was a menace to the PRL (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa; Eng., People's Republic of Poland; Polish Communist: government) only and if anything a protector of the innocent common Polish citizen from that government.

Had it not been for the fact, that what we have before us is a fair, and true account, it would be difficult to believe many of the events in which the author took part.

There is no trouble believing the author took part in this treachery. After all UB archives verify it. As for “fair and true”? Quite the opposite. He paints tyrants and their secret police in the colors of purity, while painting the Polish Patriots in tones of sewage.

By depicting dedicated and dangerous service of the officers of the security service, the memoirs of Marian Reniak are both an invaluable document and an attractive read.

Invaluable document? No. Attractive read? Maybe – if you are prepared to suspend all facts and ethics and subordinate honor to excitement. This can be great fun at times. However, it’s never great truth.



“Wiarusy” Partisan Unit - The Firefight at the UB (Polish Secret Police - "Bezpieka") District Headquarters.

On June 27, 1949, commanding officer of the “Wiarusy” unit, Stanislaw Ludzia, nom de guerre(s) “Dzielny”, and “Harnas”, awaited for the arrival of Lt. “Henryk”, a representative from the District Headquarters of ROAK (pol. Ruch Oporu Armii Krajowej – Resistance of the Home Army) in Krakow. For several years, the partisans successfully managed to evade the communist Urzad Bezpieczenstwa, which dealt them blow, after blow. With each passing day however, their situation was becoming more desperate.

They were all that was left from the largest, and most active concentration of partisan units of Major Jozef Kuras “Ogien” [,which at its peak, had between 500 and 700 men]. Designated operational name of the “3rd Company”, during 1945-1946, this unit was commanded by Warrant Officer Henryk Glowinski “Grozny”, who grew up in the Wilno area. After his death in November, 1946, during an engagement with the KBW (pol. Korpus Bezpieczenstwa Wewnetrznego - Internal Security Corps) forces, the command of the unit was assumed by the Platoon Leader (pol. Plutonowy), Antoni Wasowicz “Roch”. The death of “Ogien” in January, 1947, meant the final disintegration of the “Blyskawica” concentration of the partisan units.

Stanislaw Ludzia "Harnas" commanding officer of the "Wiarusy" partisan unitIn the photo: Soldiers form the "Wiarusy" Partisan Unit - kneeling is Stanislaw Ludzia, nom de guerre “Harnas”.

The “Wiarusy” Unit

The Platoon Leader “Roch” didn’t intend to reveal himself after the communist declared amnesty, but instead, continued operations in the Podhale region. From this point on, both “Roch” himself, as well as his subordinates, would refer to their unit as the "3rd Home Army Company", “Wiarusy”, or “Znicz”.

In May 1947, along with two of his subordinates, “Roch” attempted to illegally cross the “green boarder”, and to reach the American-controlled zone, in Austria.

His attempt was unsuccessful, and they were captured by the NKVD near Vienna. After several months of interrogations, and a trial that followed, “Roch” was executed at the “bezpieka’s” jail. After his death, the command of the unit was assumed by Jozef Swider “Msciciel”. However, only after few months, in February, 1948, he died in the engagement with the UB in Lubien, near Myslenice.

Postmortum photo of Jozef Swider "Msciciel", commanding officer of the "Wiarusy" Partisan Unit. Photo taken by Polish Secret Police  

Several days later, his second in command, Dymitr Zasuski “Czarny” was also killed in the skirmish with the UB. The next in command became Tadeusz Dymel “Srebrny”, but he survived only until Fall, 1948. On October 21, 1948 he was killed in the ambush set up by the UB in Chabowka, near Rabka, while Stanislaw Ludzia was severely wounded. But having survived, Ludzia was still lucky nonetheless, as along with Edward Skurong “Szatan”, they both managed to escape. By the time the 1949 arrived, and the communists finished off the opposition, and created the communist PZPR (1) party, they began to transform Poland into a nation of omni-present terror and fear.

Left: Jozef Swider “Msciciel” shot in the engagement with the UB on February 14, 1948. A part of the report prepared by the UB.

It reads:


"Second in Command in the 'Ogien's' group, code name 'Msciciel'. Prior to joining the gang, he resided in Rdzawka, Nowy Targ county, and was a son of a farmer. In the gang he distinguished himself with zealousy in attacking MO stations, and robberies. He was appointed by "Ogien", to be in command of a diversionary group. He usually operated in the area of the Nowy Targ county. After destruction of "Ogien's" unit, in February, 1948, along with 6 members of his gang, he joined [another] gang under command of "Czarny", which operated in the Myslenice county. He took command of [both] combined groups. On 13 February, 1948 he was stationed with the entire unit in the safe house in Lubien, Myslenice county, where on 13 February, 1948, during operation organized by [the combined forces of] MO, UB, and KBW from Myslenice, he was killed. Photo taken after the operation was completed."

Even despite the bleak prospects for the situation to improve, the “Dzielny’s” unit was destined to continue fighting. The partisans understood, that the entire area was saturated with confidants and informers working for the UB. After several years of fighting the communists, the return to normal lives, would have sooner or later, resulted in a very simple to discern scenario: arrest, interrogation, torture, and then certain death. The unit could survive only in the mountains, and in the forests. For this reason, in Spring 1949, after suspending their activities during Winter, and recuperating from wounds, “Dzielny” and his subordinates returned to their quarters and encampments on the mountain tops. While they had uniforms, arms, and knew the terrain very well, they realized very well however, that by themselves, their small unit will not be able alter the fate of the entire nation. For this reason, they desired to become a part of a much wider insurgent resistance movement to oppose the communists. Linking up with a nationwide underground organization, and establishing contact with London, meant not only logistical support, but also a sense of participation in activities of a much wider underground movement. While they counted on organizational and logistical support, above all, they needed orders, and logistical planning.

Official Seal of the "Wiarusy" Partisan UnitAbove: Official seal of the 3rd Company of the Home Army, "Wiarusy" Partisan Unit.  

Lieutenant "Henryk"

In order to locate, and establish contact with other existing underground organization, they sought to initiate contact with the central command of the Polish underground. To this end, “Dzielny” approached Stefania Kruk, vel. “Tesciowa”, who for years was a trusted member of the anticommunist underground. Her association, and long experience, dated as far back, as the times of the “Tatra Confederacy”, where alongside Jozef Kuras “Ogien”, she was a member of the underground. Stefania Kruk took part in the undergrund activities since the very beginning of Nazi occupation. She was also part of “Ogien’s” “field support” network after 1945, that is, at the time, when Stanislaw Ludzia was one of Kuras’s adjutants.

In May, 1949, Kruk delivered to “Dzielny” much wanted information: there was a chance of establishing close contact with another large underground organization. This information was even more promising, since this organization was, according to Kruk, in a process of consolidating all still functioning underground units under its command. Thus, a meeting for 29 June, 1949 was arranged by “Tesciowa” as promised. In the Gorce mountain range, right above small a village called Waksmund, Stanislaw Ludzia, Mieczyslaw Lysek “Grandziarz”, Edward Skurnog “Szatan” and Kazimierz Kolasa patiently waited.

After about a half-hour clime, along with Kolasa’s sister Maria, Stefania Kruk brought with her the awaited Lt. “Henryk” from the Krakow’s headquarters of ROAK. The meeting satisfied the partisans. They received information about a nation-wide underground network, and a confirmation that indeed, this organization was in contact with London. They also received samples of underground publications, such as the “White Eagle” (pol. “Orzel Bialy”) published within Poland by the underground , and the London’s published “Military Journal” (pol. “Dziennik Zolnierza”).

"Wiarusy" Partisan Unit - Standing first form left: Jozef Swider "Msciciel", next Stanislaw Ludzia "Harnas", "Dzielny"Above: "Wiarusy" partisan unit. From left, standing: Jozef Swider “Msciciel, next Stanislaw Ludzia “Harnas”, “Dzielny”.  

The partisans didn’t issue any conditions, and immediately declared full operational subordination to the command of the ROAK. Receiving status of a full-fledged ROAK unit meant, among other things, a renewed sense of purpose. Lt. “Henryk” received operational report, outlined goals and mission of the ROAK, and ordered creation of evidentiary list of individuals cooperating with the “Wiarusy” unit. He also requested that they prepare a list of all known UB confidants and informers in the area known to them. Established were also means of communication between the unit, and the District command of ROAK in Krakow. The next meeting took place on July 2, 1949, during which “Henryk” gave them more underground publications.

He also announced, that the ROAK command is considering secretly smuggling some of its most trusted members to the West. Once there, they where to undergo professional intelligence and sabotage training, and after its completion, they would be smuggled back to Poland. Two days later, a female courier, delivered funds, orders, and instructions. Already on July 7, “Henryk” confirmed his readiness to smuggle the unit abroad. Under the pretext of transporting sick British nationals, the operation was to be conducted via consular vehicle, that belonged to the British embassy. An additional meeting with “Henryk’s” superior, Cpt. “Antoni”, also took place; remaining details were discussed, and on the request of the ROAK’s command, the partisans additionally agreed to help in hiding the British short wave transmitter.

Across the Boarder

After the false documents were prepared, those chosen to leave for England said farewells to their families, and to Sefania Kruk. For, if it wasn't for Kruk, they would have had no chance to survive. The operation began under cover of night, on July 16, 1949. The first group consisting of Ludzia, Lysek, and Skurnog, left first. Around 10:15 p.m., an ambulance with British license plates arrived into the previously agreed place, which was located near a small wooden church in Obidowa, by the road connecting Krakow and Zakopane. This vehicle, also had an English-language sign painted on the site, which read “British Help for Poland. Katowice District”. So far, all went as planned, and without any complications. Carrying only side arms, the partisans got into the car. They were sent-off by “Henryk” himself, who presented them with a traditional highlander walking stick (pol. ciupaga) as a farewell gift.

Capture of "Wiarusy" partisans Jan Jankowski and Henryk Machala by Polish secret police, the UBAbove: The capture of the "Wiarusy" Unit partisans Jan Jankowski (first from the left), and Henryk Machala (first on the right) by the Polish secret police. Jan Jankowski will be executed on January 12, 1950, while Henryk Machala will be murdered on January 1, 1950.

But, during night, it became apparent that the vehicle was not traveling into direction of the boarder. Not suspecting the danger, instead of arriving at the safe house, the partisans found themselves at the offices of the Voivodeship Office of the Ministry of Public Security (WUBP) in Krakow. Stanislaw Ludzia realized that they were all betrayed, only when he was inside of the building, and when his “ROAK guide”, an UB functionary, lead him into the wrong room. Ludzia immediately drew his sidearm, began to fire his weapon, and tried to escape. The sound of shots alarmed his two other colleagues, who attempted to free themselves as well. But, surrounded by the scores of UB men, standing by with their weapons at a ready, they were shot dead almost instantaneously.

A lightly wounded Ludzia was trapped as well – he was quickly disarmed, and handcuffed. Only during the interrogation he realized the magnitude of the UB provocation.

Both “Henryk” and “Antoni” were officers in the communist secret police, the Urzad Bezpieczenstwa. The ROAK command, the contacts abroad, and the alleged underground organizations, were of course fictional. Despite considerable losses experienced by the “Wiarusy” unit, for a long time the UB was unable to penetrate its ranks, or to destroy it.

Henryk” was in reality Marian Struzynski, an UB agent, and a traitor – he was a former AK and WiN soldier, who from 1947 on, worked for the UB, and subsequently became one of their most "efficient" operatives. Within the service, he was known as the agent number “7”. Even prior to this particular operation, Struzynski have had considerable prior “experience”, which he acquired through the destruction of WiN structures in the Olkusk county. Capt “Antoni” on the other hand, was Lt. Leon Niklas, who was assigned to penetrate the ranks of the democratic underground by the Krakow’s WUBP. The entire operation was coordinated by two former members of the communist Armia Ludowa (AL) partisan units: Deputy Director of WUBP Franciszek Szlachcic, and Head of the Department III, Colonel Stanislaw Walach.

Marian Struzynski vel. "Marian Reniak", Polish Secret Police agent, and traitor implicated in murders of countless Polish Partisans, including members of the "Wiarusy" Partisan Unit  

We can only suspect, how thoroughly shocked Stanislaw Ludzia had to be, when he realized that among those recruited by the UB, was also Stefania Kruk, who with full understanding, betrayed, and delivered into the hands of the UB torturers, her friends, and colleagues from the underground.

Cynically, and with full understanding, she took advantage of their youth, their hopeless situation, their inability to establish contact with other underground organizations, and last, but not the least, she betrayed their confidence.

Ludzia didn’t know, that despite her distinguished service with the underground during 1940’s, already in 1946, (even when Major Jozef Kuras “Ogien” was still alive), she already betrayed them. The price for her betrayal, was release of her son from jail. The price for his release, also meant death of scores of the partisans whom she betrayed as a communist informer “TW” (pol. Acronym “Secret Collaborator – Tajny Wspolpracownik) code named “Wanda”, “S-21”, and later, as “Konrad”.

Left : Marian Struzynski vel “Marian Reniak”. Traitor and UB agent. Struzynski is personally responsible for the arrest and deaths of scores of underground soldiers.

Major "Maciej"

The events at the WUBP concluded only the first stage of the operation to liquidate the "Wiarusy” unit. The shootout incident was kept secret, and the circumstances of the fire exchange at the WUPB district headquarters, were known only to the UB. At this stage, the UB intended to liquidate the remaining partisans – they had only four more men to go.

The deceitful charade based around the non existing ROAK command was maintained by the UB. Again, services of Stefania Kruk, and agent “7” were enlisted. On July 26,1949, the remaining partisans were to meet with Major “Maciej”, who was a representative of the ROAK command.

  Soldiers from the III Company of Home Army / ROAK "Wirusy" partisan Unit.Above: Soldiers from the III Company of AK (ROAK) unit "Wiarusy", "Znicz".

They were also to meet with members of the security detail, that was protecting the [British] short wave transmitter in Surowka, near Rabka.  The part of the Major “Maciej” was played by Szlachcic, while the security detail, was played by the UB and KBW functionaries, wearing partisans’ uniforms. The partisans were told that “Dzielny”, “Grandziarz”, and “Szatan” successfully reached their destination.  “Maciej” received a report from the partisans, and ordered them to go to the earlier prepared quarters in the village. 

They were dispersed in such fashion, that for two partisans, there were six “Bezpieka” men in each room.  Once the signal was given (it was a shout  – “Long live the government in London”),  all partisans were subdued. The "Bezpieka" easily overcame their resistance, and then, handcuffed, they were transported to Krakow. Jan Jankowski “Zbieg”, Leon Zagota “Zlom”, and Stanislaw Janczyk “Prut” found themselves in the hands of the UB.

Stanislaw Ludzia, nom de guerre "Harnas" Executed by Polish Secret Police in 1950.  

The “Wiarusy” unit ceased to exist.  A wave of arrests swept through the Podhale region.  All those who had any prior contact with the “Wiarusy” unit were arrested, interrogated, and brutally beaten in order to extract confessions.

The trial that subsequently took place before the communist court, was only a formality. All accused, including Stanislaw Ludzia, were sentenced to death.  They were executed on January 12, 1950. But, this was only one of many similar operations of this type conducted by the UB. By 1949, the “bezpieka” had already developed considerable experience in “smuggling”, and “transferring” unsuspecting individual partisans, or entire partisan units.

Above: Stanislaw Ludzia, nom de guerre "Harnas" Soldier in the Polish Democratic Underground unit of the National Armed Forces (pol. Narodowe Sily Zbrojne - NSZ). Photo taken at the WUBP (Voivodeship Office of Public Security) district headquarters jail in Krakow in the mid 1949.

Already, in 1946, during similar operation, they were able to murder nearly two hundred partisans from the NSZ (pol. abr. Narodowe Sily Zbrojne -National Armed Forces) unit under command of Henryk Flame, nom de guerre “Bartek” unit.

Both Stefania Kruk, as well as Struzynski, faithfully remained at the service of their masters from the UB. Under the pen name “Marian Reniak”, Struzynski published many “heroic” books on this subject [including "Dangerous Paths" - (pol. "Niebezpieczne Sciezki"), and "Alone among strangers" (pol. "Sam wsrod obcych")]. But, not even in the "Free Poland", was Stuzynski vel Reniak to answer for his part in the murders committed against soldiers from the Democratic Underground. Ironically, after his death in 2004, the “Police Gazette” (pol. “Gazeta Policyjna”) published an obituary with an all-telling caption: “Honor to your memory Marian!” (pol. “Czesc Twojej Pamieci Marianie!").

Written by Dr. Maciej Korkuc, PhD - IPN (The Institute of National Remembrance), Krakow, Poland.


Members of the "Wiarusy" Partisan Unit murdered by communists:

Henryk Machala Executed by communists in 1950

Henryk Machala (1928-1950), Nom de guerre(s): “Gryf”, “Jaksa”, “Haxa”, “Lech”
Son of Jozef and Teodozja Machala, born May 6, 1928 in Klonow, Sieradz County. Soldier in the Democratic Underground Partisan Unit “Wiarusy”.

Executed: January 1, 1950

Jan Rokita Polish Underground Soldier Executed by communists in 1947

Jan Rokita (1924-1947)

Son of Andrzej and Anna Rokita, born December 13, 1924 in Rdzaka, Nowy Targ. Collaborated with the Democratic Partisan Units “Blyskawica” and “Wiarusy.

Executed: December 20, 1947

Adam Domalik - Polish Underground Soldier Executed by communists in 1948

Adam Domalik, Nom de guerre(s) "Kowboj", "Dab"
Son of Jan and Maria Domalik, Born November 4, 1926 in Spytkowice, Krakow County. Soldier in the Democratic Underground Partisan Unit “Wiarusy”.

Executed: February 24, 1948

Jozef Dyda - Polish Underground Soldier executed by communists in 1947

Jozef Dyda, Nom de guerre(s) "Czarny", "Wladyslaw Czarnecki"
Son of Jozef and Anna Dyda. Born 19 July 1924 in Korscienko, Nowy Targ County. Soldier in the Democratic Underground Partisan Unit “Wiarusy”.

Executed: November 25, 1947

Stanislaw Samborski - Polish Underground Soldier executed by communists in 1949

Stanislaw Samborski, nom de guerre "Bartek", "Orlik"
Son of Jan and Helena Samborski. Born April 14, 1928 in Rybno, Stanislawow County. Soldier in the Democratic Underground Partisan Unit “Wiarusy”.

Executed: July 15, 1949

Leon Zagata  - Polish Underground Soldier executed by communists in 1950  

Leon Zagata, Nom de guerre "Zlom"
Son of Jozef and Maria Zagata. Born February 5, 1925 in Gronkowo, Nowy Targ County. Soldier in the Democratic Underground Partisan Unit “Wiarusy”.

Executed: January 12, 1950



(1) PZPR - Polish United Workers Party (pol. Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza). The Marxist-Leninist communist party of the People's Republic of Poland.





Home | About Doomed Soldiers | FAQ | Contact Us | Search | SiteMap | Polish Translation | Introduction | Dictionary of Terms | Torture Methods | About Jozef Kuras | In Search of Kuras's Remains | UB Murders | Volunteer For Auschwitz | Wiarusy | Baran Forests Murders | Liquidation of "Bartek's" Unit | The Augustow Roundup | Lt. "Mlot" Interview | A. Kiszka Interview | AK-WiN Counterintelligence | Propaganda An Anti-Semitism | Polish Secret Police | History Books | History Websites | Administrative Units | Law | Prisons | Executions | Surkonty Battle | Surkonty Battle pt. 2 | Stalin's Secret Order | National Armed Forces Introduction | Enemies & Allies | Occupiers | Lies by Omission | Living And Suriving As Partisan | Memoirs of Szkot | Freedom Independence |